Cavalier King Charles Spaniels' Miscellaneous Disorders

Occasionally we discover veterinary journal articles about one or a few cavalier King Charles spaniels being diagnosed with veterinary disorders rarely found in the breed. These disorders may not be categorized under any specific genetic disorder, and they may not be inherited at all. We include them here just to enable cavalier owners and veterinarians to be able to find them in the event their cavaliers are diagnosed similarly.

Also, by means of a summary, we are fortunate that in the UK in 2015, a veterinary clinic database has been surveyed to list the "Prevalence of disorders recorded in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels attending primary-care veterinary practices in England", which includes 3,624 CKCSs. It lists numerous disorders and ranks them as they were diagnosed in the treatment of cavaliers in England from 2007 to 2013.

List of Disorders

The disorders include:

* Not a disorder


Addison's Disease --hypoadrenocorticism

Addison's Disease is hypoadrenocorticism, the opposite of Cushing's Disease. For general information about Addison's Disease, see this webpage. See also these studies of adrenocortical insufficiency, which included cavaliers.

RETURN TO TOP

Aortic thromboembolism -- femoral artery occlusion

Aortic thromboembolism (femoral artery occlusion) is a condition which results from a blood clot dislodging within the aorta, leading to the interruption of blood flow to tissues served by that portion of the aorta, which include the legs, kidneys, intestines, and brain. Aortic thromboembolism is rare in other breeds and is not clinically important in most dogs because of adequate collateral circulation. However, it is more common in cavalier King Charles spaniels, as these veterinary reports indicate. This evidence indicates the CKCS may have a genetic predisposition to this disorder and probable weakness in the femoral artery wall. See these veterinary reports for details about this disorder in cavaliers.

RETURN TO TOP

Arthritis

An idiopathic form of arthritis, causing recurring episodes of lameness and joint swelling, has been reported in a cavalier King Charles spaniel in at least one published veterinary journal article.

In a November 2016 article, a team of Wisconsin and Michigan researchers studied the clinical records of 79 dogs diagnosed with immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA). Of those 79 dogs, 13 had erosive IMPA, of which, two were cavalier King Charles spaniels. The 13 affected dogs had erosive lesions in their carpal joints. The estimated median synovial fluid lymphocyte count for dogs with erosive IMPA was significantly greater than that for dogs with nonerosive IMPA. Results indicated erosive IMPA most commonly affected the carpal joints of middle-aged small-breed dogs.

RETURN TO TOP

Bell's palsy

Bell's palsy is an idiopathic facial nerve paralysis, which occurs without evidence of infection, reduced thryroid function, or injury. It has been identified in one veterinary report of three cavalier King Charles spaniels. See. also, facial nerve paralysis, below.

RETURN TO TOP

Canine atopic dermatitis

Canine atopic dermatitis is due to an inherited tendency to develop IgE antibodies in response to exposure to allergens that areinhaled or absorbed through the skin.  Malassezia dermatitis consists ofyeast infections, for which the CKCS has been found to be at increased risk. See these veterinary reports for details about this disorder in cavaliers.

RETURN TO TOP

Dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease in which the heart muscle weakens and does not function properly in order to to pump blood adequately, leading to poor circulation. This is called a loss of "myocardial contractility". Other consequences are an irregular heart beat and, ultimately, heart failure. Symptoms include difficulty breathing, weakness, and collapse.

Thus far, fortunately, DCM is rare in the cavalier King Charles spaniel. In a January 2009 review of DCM in 369 dogs at clinics in the United Kingdom between 1993 and 2006, only two were cavaliers. It is much more common in some larger breeds, particularly the Doberman pinscher and the boxer, and ususally at middle-age. In some cases, DCM can be diagnosed early by detecting a heart murmur, which raises a conflict for CKCSs since their most common disorder, mitral valve disease, also is first detected by hearing a murmur. However, the DCM murmur is a different sound and located at a different part of the dog's heart. So the examining veterinarian must be adept at distinguishing between the two differing murmurs. DCM can be confirmed by x-ray showing significant enlargement of the heart, and electrocardiogram (EKG) and echocardiogram.

DCM has been associated with taurine deficiency in the blood, so in such cases, additional taurine likely will be prescribed. Medications such as diuretics, ACE-inhibitors, and pimobendan has been shown to be effective improving the quality of life of dogs affected by DCM, but there are no medications which cure this disease.

RETURN TO TOP

Ectrodactyly in a CKCSEctrodactyly

Ectrodactyly* is an extremely rare congenital malformation in which the development of the dog's paw bone (mesenchymal) cells are interrupted during gestation. Causes could include genetic mutations, environmental factors such as maternal disease or diet, drugs, vaccines, or radiation. Ectrodactyly often is displayed as a cleft between metacarpal bones, usually the first and second metacarpal bones. They may be abnormally formed or missing. In a 2017 case of a cavalier King Charles spaniel puppy in New Zealand, both forelegs are affected, with one shorter than the other and resembling a lobster claw and the other with a split between the toes. (See photo at right.)

* Also known as split-hand deformity or lobster syndrome.

RETURN TO TOP

Elbow luxation and fracture

Congenital elbow luxation is a polygenic genetic disorder of the forelegs. Cavaliers as a breed are not known to be predisposed to this disease. See this veterinary report for details about this disorder in a cavalier.

Cavaliers are believed, from research reports, to have a breed predisposition for condylar fractures of the elbow. Most of these injuries occur in immature dogs due to falls. See these veterinary reports for details about this disorder in CKCSs.

RETURN TO TOP

Facial nerve paralysis

Idiopathic facial nerve paralysis or facial palsy is reportedly common in the cavalier King Charles spaniel. It is described as a sudden onset of either unilateral or bilateral facial nerve paralysis with no other abnormal signs. However, in some cases it has been combined with vestibular syndrome. Recovery may be within weeks, but in the most cases the abnormality is permanent. There is an increased risk of exposure corneal ulcers in dogs with protruding eyes, such as cavaliers. Facial nerve paralysis in the CKCS may also be associated with primary secretory otitis media (PSOM), masticatory muscle myositis (MMM), hypothyroidism, and/or vestibular syndrome.

In a November 2016 abstract, French researchers studied 69 dogs with facial nerve paralysis. The report does not provide a count of cavalier King Charles spaniels included in the study, but the researchers concluded that the CKCS and the French bulldog should be added to the list of predisposed breeds to the disorder. Additionally, they found:

"Idiopathic facial paralysis was diagnosed in 48% of dogs. Vestibular signs were the most common additional clinical signs and were observed in 36% of dogs with idiopathic facial paralysis. Peripheral nervous system disease was diagnosed in 19% of dogs, and central nervous system disease occurred in 30% of dogs. ... Improved diagnostic methods enabled the diagnosis of a higher percentage of inflammatory/infectious diseases, which were absent in the central nervous system aetiologies of a previous similar study, and revealed metabolic (hypothyroidism), inflammatory and neoplastic aetiologies for peripheral nervous system disease."

In an April 2017 article, a cavalier suffered facial nerve paralysis which caused sleep apnea and an inability to blink her eyes. Specialists at the Animal Health Trust performed surgery on her eyelids to help protect her eyes while awaiting nerve function to slowly return. The author states:

"Fortunately most dogs cope very well with such nerve paralysis, which can be permanent, as long as we can keep their eyes healthy."

See, also, Bell's Palsy, above.

RETURN TO TOP

Fear avoidance in puppies

While a study of the level of fear avoidance among puppies of different breeds is not a "disorder", it has been shown in a July 2015 study that cavalier puppies from 4 to 10 weeks of age exhibited a later onset of fear-related avoidance behavior when compared with German shepherd dog puppies and Yorkshire terrier puppies. In the same study, CKCSs demonstrated the highest incidence of crouching in response to a loud noise,  followed by the Yorkshire terriers. Breed differences in puppy mobility were observed beginning at 6 weeks of age, with German shepherd dogs demonstrating the most mobility and cavaliers the least. The authors concluded that the results of their study support the hypothesis that emotional and behavioral development, as well as the onset of fear-related avoidance behavior, varies among breeds of domestic dogs.

RETURN TO TOP

Follicular cystitis

Follicular cystitis is an inflammatory disease of the bladder.  In a report in August 2014 the first case of follicular cystitis in a dog, a female cavalier King Charles spaniel was reported. Cystitis is inflammation of the bladder. Most cases of the inflammation are caused by a bacterial infection, and they are called a urinary tract infection (UTI). Follicular cystitis is characterized by the presence of lymphoid follicles with germinal center formation.

RETURN TO TOP

Growth plate (physeal) fractures

Salter-Harris ClassificationFractures of the bones of immature dogs can include a growth plate (physis), called a physeal fracture. The growth plate is composed mostly of cartilage, meaning that it is weaker than adjoining ossified bone. A hazard of damaging and/or repairing a growth plate is that it could cause premature closure of the plate. Degrees of growth plate fractures are classified by the Salter-Harris classification system (see diagram). In a February 2016 article, UK orthopedists discuss a growth plate (Salter-Harris type one) fracture of the humerus of a cavalier King Charles spaniel. The radiograph photos in the linked article show the CKCS at left with the fracture and at right how it has been stabilized with parallel K-wires through the greater tubercle into the humeral diaphysis.

RETURN TO TOP

Heartworm --  Angiostrongylus vasorum

The heartworm Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that lives in the pulmonary vessels and the heart of dogs.  A higher occurrence of this parasite has been found in cavaliers than other breeds, and especially in the cavaliers' eyes as well as the heart and blood vessels.  See these veterinary reports for details about this disorder in CKCSs.

RETURN TO TOP

Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE)

Cavaliers appear to be more likely to develop hemorrhagic gastroenteritis* than the average purebred breed. It's cause is not known, but its symptoms are well noted -- primarily vomiting and bright red bloody diarrhea, appearing suddenly and without advance signs. Other symptoms may include a decreased appetite, fever, fatigue, and a painful abdomen.

*Also known as Idiopathic acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (AHDS).

Suspected causes include any of the following, singly or combined: pancreatitis, intestinal bacteria or parasites, infections, intestinal ulcers or tumors, canine parvovirus, stress, and/or anxiety.

It is very important that HGE be diagnosed and treated immediately, to avoid dehydration and possible death. Diagnosis includes the process of eliminating other possible causes, and therefore requires a complete blood count and analysis, urinalysis, x-rays, fecal evaluation, and ultrasound or endoscopic examinations of the gastrointestinal tract.

Treatment includes intravenous fluid (IV) therapy, diet restriction, antibiotics, and intestinal medications. Dogs who suffer from HGE once may be more likely to develop it in the future. In an April 2015 article, gastroenteritis was reported in only 11 cavaliers among 3,624 CKCSs treated at primary-care veterinary practices in England from 2009 to 2013. However, diarrhea, due to unspecified causes, was the second most common disorder in that report, with 193 cases, second only to heart murmurs. Also, clinical reports of diagnosing and treating cavaliers with HGE are abundant.

Nuclear glycogen inclusions in gastric glands' cellsIn a January 2017 article, a team of Italian veterinary pathologists report that cavalier King Charles spaniels were the main represented purebred breed in their study of nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells -- cells which are located in the gastric glands found in the lining of the fundus and in the body of the stomach. Mixed-breed dogs were 26% (5 dogs) of the dogs in the 24-dog study found to have these inclusions, and cavaliers were second with 11% (2 dogs).  (Images at right: Nested gastric glands containing nuclear inclusions in parietal cells [arrows]. Inset: detail of a nuclear inclusion in a parietal cell.)

They concluded:

"Our findings suggest that nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells could be an incidental finding. Nevertheless, since nuclear glycogen is present in several pathologic conditions, further investigations could be warranted to determine their true significance."

At this point, it is not known that findings of nuclear glycogen inclusions in the cavaliers' stomach glands are related to HGE.

RETURN TO TOP

Hepatitis, chronic

Chronic hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver, causing progressive scarring or formation of excessive fibrous tissue.  See these veterinary reports for details about this disorder in a cavalier.

RETURN TO TOP

Hypersialism

Hypersialism is the excessive secretion of the salivary glands, such as drooling. In a veterinary article, two cavaliers were examined for hypersialism associated with non-painful, symmetrical enlargement of both mandibular salivary glands.

RETURN TO TOP

Icterus -- zinc poisoning

Icterus is a yellowing, such as jaundice.  In a veterinary article, a cavalier had an episode of collapse and weakness. The dog had icteric sclera and mucous membranes, and was diagnosed with probable zinc toxicity. Abdominal radiography revealed metallic foreign bodies in the stomach. Multiple coins, including some zinc containing pennies minted after 1982, and a medallion were removed endoscopically.

RETURN TO TOP

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) describes a group of gastrointestinal diseases which result in inflammation of the intestines and chronic symptoms related to gastrointestinal system. Hypersensitive immune system responses initiated by bacteria in the intestines is believed to be the cause of inflammation. While IBD is not common in the cavalier King Charles spaniel, these studies indicate that the CKCS breed experiences more than its fair share of this disorder. Typical symptoms include, primarily diarrhea, along with fatigue, vomiting, rumbling and gurgling abdominal sounds, and bright red blood in stools.

RETURN TO TOP

Insecticide poisoning reaction -- pyrethrins

Pyrethrins are the active ingredients of certain insecticides, including topical ointments applied to dogs' skin. AdvantageIn a September 2014 article, Israeli researchers reported on the diagnosis and treatment of a cavalier suffering from generalized body tremors, facial twitching, and salivation. Biospotix spray (geraniol essential oils) and Advantage spot on had been applied on the dog’s skin, and the owner’s household was sprayed against insects using a commercial pyrethroid preparation (Admiral) 24 hours before clinical signs appeared. The dog was otherwise healthy, fully vaccinated, lived in an apartment and leashwalked. They diagnosed pyrethroid toxicosis. They treated with diazepam, methocarbamol and IV fluids, followed by general anesthesia with isofluran and diazepam CRI. After twenty-four hours, the dog was no longer under general anesthesia. Seventy two hours after admission the dog was discharged, was alert and responsive when stimulated, and walked and ate normally.

RETURN TO TOP

Myoclonus

Myoclonus is a syndrome displaying symptoms of spasmodic jerky contractions of groups of muscles, mainly of the head and forelimbs when the dog is standing or sitting . The syndrome can be progressive with affected dogs suffering frequent jerks which may cause the dog to fall or stumble. See these veterinary reports for details about this disorder in CKCSs.

In a September 2015 article, the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force stated:

"Older Cavalier King Charles spaniels (>5 years old) have a high prevalence of myoclonus, which manifests most commonly as a brief jerking of the head and forelimbs when the dog is standing or sitting. Initially the syndrome is relatively benign but can be progressive with affected dogs suffering frequent jerks which may interfere with function, for example cause the dog to fall or stumble. The syndrome can be confused with focal epileptic seizures but generally does not respond to AEDs [antiepileptic drugs] licenced for dogs although may respond to levetiracetam." 
RETURN TO TOP

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a congenital heart defect, of which cavaliers have shown a high prevalence. See this webpage  for details about this disorder in CKCSs.

RETURN TO TOP

Periodontal disease

Periodontal disease (PD) describes a group of inflammatory diseases caused by bacterial plaque in the periodontium. The periodontium contains the supporting structure of the teeth and includes the gingiva, alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. PD reportedly is found in approximately 80% of dogs aged 2 years or older.  While PD has not been shown to be more common in the cavalier than in other breeds, in an April 2014 study, Portugese veterinarians, searching the genetics of canine periodontal disease, discovered that variants of the interleukin-10 gene, particularly interleukin-10 (IL-10), is "highly polymorphic with genetic variants that may be important in PD susceptibility." Previous studies of IL-10 in the CKCS suggest that it may play a role in determining the cavaliers' susceptibility to diabetes.

RETURN TO TOP

Piebaldism -- axial depigmentation

Piebaldism is a benign genetic disease caused by a mutation which results in the patches of fur which lack pigment. Axial depigmentation in CKCSIt is one of a series of defects called "neurocristopathies", some of which result as cancer of the nervous system, deafness, digestive problems, or holes in the heart, which are caused by cells not moving to the right place as an embryo develops. Piebaldism is caused by a mutation in a gene called Kit.

The mutation causes melanocytes cells in the early embryo to fail to migrate correctly. Melanocytes are responsible for pigmentation of hair and of skin. These cells start at the back of the embryo and they try to migrate around through the skin and cover the whole of the embryo's skin. When arkly colored pigment cells do not proliferate enough -- not making enough daughter cells to colonize or cover the whole region of the skin that needs to be covered by the time the pigmentation pattern is set down -- regions of skin or hair result in lacking pigment, usually at the front of an animal.

In particular, regarding the association of piebaldism and deafness, cavaliers are potentially subject to pigment-associated congenital sensorineural deafness, which should be evident in the puppy age span. See our deafness webpage for more information.

In this March 2017 article, the investigators include a photo of a cavalier with axial depigmentation, a form of piebaldism. See photo at right.

RETURN TO TOP

Sago PalmPlants -- toxic, poisonous

Some varieties of plants, including common decorative ones, are toxic to dogs, capable of causing serious illness and death from the consumption of relatively small amounts of leaves, berries, or seeds. The most toxic plants for dogs include: lilies, castor bean, cycad palms (such as sago), yews, autumn crocuses, foxglove, lily of the valley, oleander, and "yesterday, today, and tomorrow". See this March 2005 article for details.

In this May 2017 article, 14 Texas dogs (including two cavaliers), suffered toxicosis from eating the seeds or other parts of the cycad (sago) palm tree (see example at right). Nine of the 14 dogs died as a direct result of cycad palm intoxication. Three of the five survivors had persistently elevated liver enzymes, indicating liver damage. Serum albumin levels and nadir platelet counts were significantly lower in nonsurvivors compared to survivors. The article does not indicate in which category the CKCSs fell.

RETURN TO TOP

Porencephaly

Porencephaly is the congenital cerebral defect and a rare malformation with the main clinical sign of seizure symptoms. CKCS porencephaly lesion at arrowIn a July 2015 article, Japanese researchers reported discovering porencephaly -- a congenital cerebral cavity, filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) -- in a 9 month old female cavalier. The dog exhibited symptoms of chewing and excitement before secondary generalized seizures and fly-biting after the seizures for 5–6 min.  (At right, see MRI scan of CKCS' lesion at arrow.) They examined a total of two affected dogs and one affected cat. Their aim of the study was to find if there was any hippocampal atrophy in cases of porencephaly, and they found in all three cases, less hippocampal volume or hippocampal loss at the lesion side or the larger defect side. They also noted that the severity of seizure symptoms was attributed to cyst ratio and asymmetric ratio. Both the cyst ratio and asymmetric ratio had correlation with the seizure symptoms. They concluded that porencephaly may coexist with hippocampal atrophy, and that clinicians should evaluate carefully the hippocampal volume and asymmetry in MRI, because the atrophy may have relationships with porencephaly-related seizures.

RETURN TO TOP

Portosystemic (liver) shunt

In a normal dog, blood from the gastrointestinal tract enters the portal vein, which then takes blood to the liver, which then metabolizes and detoxifies this blood before sending it back into the circulatory system to the heart. A portosystemic shunt is a blood vessel present at the fetal stage, carrying toxified blood directly from the gastrointestinal tract to the heart, bypassing the liver and shunting the blood directly into the circulatory system. These shunts are classified as either intrahepatic (inside the liver) and extrahepatic (outside the liver) shunts. An intrahepatic portosystemic shunt represents a normal embryologic shunt which normally closes at birth, allowing the liver to take over its filtering, storage, and production functions. However, in some cases the intrahepatic shunt does not close down properly and the liver is unable to grow or function properly. An extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (EHPSS) is an abnormal embryonic connection between to venous systems, which completely bypasses the liver. Most portosystemic shunts are congenital, but in some cases, shunts may be acquired due to another problem with the liver.

Yorkshire terriers and Cairn terriers reportedly appear to have an inherited basis for  extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS). Breeds are predisposed to EHPSS are Jack Russell terriers, Dachshunds, Miniature schnauzers, and Maltese. EHPSS have been observed mainly in small breeds. Cavaliers do not appear to be predisposed to EHPSS, but some CKCSs have been diagnosed with the disorder. See this July 2012 article and this December 2015 article for additional information regarding cavaliers with this condition.

RETURN TO TOP

Pregnancy

The June 2016 veterinary journal article which we include on cavaliers' pregnancies fortunately does not discuss a disorder. This article examined the normal pregnancies of six normal CKCSs. Because there are so few published studies of cavalier pregnancies, we are including this one here on our Miscellaneous page. The researchers were comparing progesterone concentrations (P4) at various stages of normal pregnancies. They found:

• The six cavaliers delivered a range of one to five puppies, between 62 and 65 days after ovulation.
• The P4 concentrations continuously decreased from the first to the last sampling during pregnancy.

In a July 2016 poster abstract, a team of N.C. State veterinary theriogenology researchers compared the gestation periods of 17 cavaliers and 17 bitches of other breeds. They found that the CKCSs' average gestation period of 62.8 days was 3.2% shorter than the reported canine gestation length of 65 days and roughly two days shorter than that of the control group. They concluded that the implications of this study include recommendations for scheduling a timed Caesarean section and approaches to managing late-term complications.

In an October 2016 report by a team of French reproduction specialists, they studied 2,561 heats of 1,668 cavalier King Charles spaniels in France. They found:

Number of puppies born per litter: 4.4 ± 2.0
Stillbirth rate: 8.8%
Post-natal mortality rate: 7.5%
Number of puppies surviving per whelping: 3.7 ± 2.0
RETURN TO TOP

Protein-losing enteropathy

Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is the loss of albumin and globulin in the intestines, caused by any of a variety of diseases, including inflammation, infiltration, ulceration, blood loss, and particularly, lymphangiectasia (dilation of lymph vessels). Yorkshire terrier, soft-coated Wheaton terrier, Norwegian Lundehund, and Basenji reportedly are predisposed to PLE, but there are reported cases of cavaliers being diagnosed with the syndrome. See this January 2011 article and this March 2011 article. The initial symptom of PLE usually is loss of weight due to malnutrition, but other signs may include intermittent diarrhea and vomiting. Since any of a number of disorders may be the cause of the PLE, an initial goal is to determine whether or not gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is the origin of the protein loss. Once diagnosed, treatment options include dietary changes and management of the inflammation.

RETURN TO TOP

Pulmonic stenosis

Pulmonic stenosis is a common congenital cardiac defect. It is characterized by the narrowing and obstruction of blood through the heart's pulmonary valve, which connects the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle chamber.

 Cavaliers are among the breeds at increased risk for this disorder. It can be classified as sub-valvular, valvular or supra-valvular according to the location of the lesion. Valvular stenosis is the most common form. There are two main types – A and B. Type A is typified by fusion of the peripheral edges of the semilunar valves (commissural fusion) and poststenotic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk. Type B may involve hypoplasia of the pulmonary annulus and pulmonary trunk, with the cusps appearing thickened and immobile. Type A is more prevalent. See these veterinary reports for details about this disorder in cavaliers.

Similarly, in an August 2000 report, researchers found wrinkling and irregularity of the surface of the main pulmonary artery and its branches. The pulmonary artery wall showed sever intimal thickening due to subendothelial fibrosis and lesions.

Valvuloplasty balloon cathetersIn this July 2016 article, a team of Thailand veterinary surgeons and other specialists report a successful insertion of a balloon in the pulmonary valves of three dogs, including a cavalier (#2 in the report), affected by pulmonic stenosis. In this study, the balloon was inserted by a catheter and then inflated at the location of the narrowing of the pulmonary valve. (See examples of balloon catheters at right.) Once the balloon was inflated, the narrowing of the valve disappeared and the pressure through the valve greatly decreased in the CKCS.

In a July 2016 newspaper article, veterinary cardiologist Simon Swift of the University of Florida's veterinary Pulmonic Valve Stentcollege reported a case of a Havanese spaniel with pulmonic stenosis which for which a valvuloplasty procedure was unsuccessful because the dog had an "unusually thick right ventricle and abnormal valve". Dr. Swift and a surgical team, which included the university's pediatric cardiology specialists, put a stent, a metal tube made of wire mesh (see photo at left), on a balloon and entered the chest straight into the heart. Then, they expanded the balloon to open the stent and relieve the blockage in his artery, Swift said.

RETURN TO TOP

Shadow chasing

Shadow Chasing Cavalier King Charles SpanielShadow chasing is a repetitive and seemingly uncontrollable behavior -- a neurological disorder -- in a small minority of dogs, similar to "obsessive compulsive disorder" (OCD) in humans. It is categorized as a canine compulsive disorder (CCD). It is attributed to an alteration in the dog's dopaminergic neurotransmitter (DAT) system in the brain.

In this November 2010 case-study, a female cavalier King Charles spaniel's shadow chasing was getting progressively frequent and long term. Examination revealed a significantly higher dopamine transporter (DAT) striatal-to-brain ratio. The Belgian veterinarians treated the disorder with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine. Noticeable improvement in the cavalier's condition began after seven days of treatment. Shadow chasing disappeared almost completely after three weeks and, if performed, was stopped by calling the dog’s name. Clomipramine treatment was continued at the same dose for two months, at which point the researchers noted the DAT binding regained normal values. Nevertheless, the shadow chasing reocurred after discontinuing the medication for two days. The most significant side effect was gluttony (e.g., persistent searching and opening garbage pails) after six weeks of treatment, which the vets treated by reducing the dosage of clomipramine every other day thereafter. The researchers concluded that the successful treatment with clomipramine indicated the role of dopamine in CCD.

CAUTION:  Clomipramine (Anafranil), a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), inhibits both norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake. It reportedly can lead to serotonin accumulation and serotonin syndrome (symptomatically, twitching, tremor, tachycardia, myoclonic movements, and hyperthermia) in humans when used in combination with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs, which decrease the breakdown of serotonin) or serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which increase synaptic serotonin concentrations. Deaths have been reported in humans given clomipramine plus MAOIs—a well-established interaction. See this June 2013 report. Also, high levels of serotonin in cavaliers' blood platelets and mitral valve tissues have been associated with mitral valve disease. For more information, see this discussion on our MVD webpage.

See, also, our related discussion of fly catcthing.

RETURN TO TOP

Temporomandibular joint morphology

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the hinge of the jaw that connects the jaw to the temporal bones of the skull. Temporo-mandibular joint dysplasia refers to pain and dysfunction of the muscles that move the temporomandibular joints and the jaw. Unfortunately, the typical shape of the cavalier's temporomandibular joint is uniquely odd. In a May 2001 report, the researchers compared the morphology of the temporomandibular joints of numerous breeds of dogs, from a radiographic positioning standpoint. They noted that:

"The temporomandibular joints of the cavalier king Charles spaniel and Pekingese skulls in the anatomical collection were considered to be grossly abnormal. They were therefore excluded from further consideration in the present study and their rotational angles omitted from Table 2."

In a May 2002 article, veterinary radiologists reported on temporomandibular joint dysplasia in the skulls of 33 cavaliers, finding evidence of bilateral temporomandibular joint dysplasia. They concluded:

"This finding suggests that temporomandibular joint dysplasia is a widespread asymptomatic condition in the CKCS and should be regarded as a normal morphologic variation rather than a pathologic anomaly."

In an August 2016 study, eleven CKCSs were included in a review of TMJ in 48 dogs, examining the morphologic and morphometric features of the TMJ using computed tomography (CT). They found:

"The TMJs of Cavalier King Charles spaniels showed remarkably lower values associated with shallow mandibular fossae and incongruent articular heads.

"Cavalier King Charles spaniels had the shallowest mandibular fossae of all breeds. The retroarticular process appeared as a bony extension on the medioventral aspect of the mandibular fossa, articulating with the caudomedial aspect of the condylar process. This bony extension was prominent in Labrador retrievers, German shepherds, boxers, and English bulldogs. The retroarticular process was less developed in cocker spaniels, shih tzus, and pug. In Cavalier King Charles spaniels, it was small or absent.

"The wide angles documented in Labrador retrievers, German shepherds, boxers, and English bulldogs were consistent with long and well-defined retroarticular processes, whereas the narrow angles found in cocker spaniels, shih tzus, Cavalier King Charles spaniels, and a pug were due to less developed or absent retroarticular processes. A dramatically reduced ventral extension of the retroarticular process, as observed in cocker spaniels and Cavaliers King Charles spaniels in this study, may permit slight caudal dislocation of the head of the condylar process and predispose to TMJ instability.

"German shepherds, boxers, and English bulldogswere consistent with deeper (more concave) mandibular fossae and more prominent retroarticular processes, whereas the narrow angles found in cocker spaniels, shih tzus, CavalierKing Charles spaniels, and the pug were due to more shallower (less concave) mandibular fossae and less prominent or absent retroarticular processes.

"The present study agrees with the asymptomatic dysplastic condition of the TMJ previously reported in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel and suggests that this morphological features may exist in certain dog breeds such as cocker spaniels and small breeds such as shih tzus and pugs."

Diagram C of Figure 11 below shows the severe shallowness of the CKCS's mandibular fossa, compared to those of the Labrador retriever, German shepherd boxer, and English bulldog (diagram A) and those of the Cocker spaniel, pug, and Shih Tzus (diagram C).

Comparison of TMJs

RETURN TO TOP

Tonsillitis

We know of no veterinary journal articles about cavailers having tonsillitis. However, it is a known disorder in purebred dogs, especially in smaller breeds. See this article on the general nature of the disorder. Since tonsillitis is an infection, it usually is successfully treated with antibiotics. Removal of the tonsils as treatment -- tonsillectomy -- reportedly is quite rare. As the linked article notes, tonsils play a "vital role in fighting infection of the oropharyngeal cavity (mouth and throat)." As a result, tonsillectomy may become necessary only if "there is poor response to treatment or if tonsillitis becomes a recurring condition. Recurrent tonsillitis is more likely to occur in small breeds of dogs."

Nevertheless, we know of one reported case of a cavalier undergoing a tonsillectomy. It was performed on Rex, the CKCS owned by President  and Mrs. Ronald Reagan, and was performed in January 1986, only a month after the Reagans acquired Rex in December 1985 at age one year. See this brief New York Times article.

RETURN TO TOP

Vasculitis

Vasculitis is the inflammation of blood vessel walls. In a June 2015 article, researchers reported on vasculitis in six cavaliers, along with 36 dogs of other breeds.

RETURN TO TOP

Research News

Angiostrongylus vasorum in CKCS heartJune 2017: Italian case study of two CKCSs infected with heartworm Angiostrongylus vasorum brings total to 12 published reports on cavaliers diagnosed with this parasite since 2004. In a June 2017 article, a team of Italian veterinarians report case studies of two cavalier King Charles spaniels infected with the nematode parasite, Angiostrongylus vasorum, a deadly heartworm. One of the cavaliers did not survive despite treatment, and the worms were found in the dog's heart. (See arrow in photo at right.) This article brings to a total of 12 such publications of CKCSs suffering from Angiostrongylosis, the disease caused by this parasite, since 2004 -- far more reports than for any other breed.

March 2017: Two cavaliers are among 14 Texas dogs poisoned by eating sago palm seeds. In a May 2017 article, the researchers (Carolyn Clarke, Derek Burney) report on 14 Texas dogs (including two cavaliers) which suffered toxicosis from eating the seeds or other parts of the cycad (sago) palm tree. Nine of the 14 dogs died as a direct result of cycad palm intoxication. Three of the five survivors had persistently elevated liver enzymes, indicating liver damage. Serum albumin levels and nadir platelet counts were significantly lower in nonsurvivors compared to survivors. The article does not indicate in which category the CKCSs fell.

January 2017: Researchers find cavaliers as the main represented breed for nuclear glycogen inclusions in the stomach's gastric glands. Nuclear glycogen inclusions in gastric glands' cellsIn a January 2017 article, a team of Italian veterinary pathologists (S. Silvestri, E. Lepri, C. Dall’Aglio, M. C. Marchesi, G. Vitellozzi) report that cavalier King Charles spaniels were the main represented purebred breed in their study of nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells -- cells which are located in the gastric glands found in the lining of the fundus and in the body of the stomach. Mixed-breed dogs were 26% (5 dogs) of the dogs in the 24-dog study found to have these inclusions, and cavaliers were second with 11% (2 dogs). (Images at right: Nested gastric glands containing nuclear inclusions in parietal cells [arrows]. Inset: detail of a nuclear inclusion in a parietal cell.)

They concluded:

"Our findings suggest that nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells could be an incidental finding. Nevertheless, since nuclear glycogen is present in several pathologic conditions, further investigations could be warranted to determine their true significance."

November 2016: Cavaliers were 15+% of dogs with erosive immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA). Left carpus of CKCSIn a November 2016 article, a team of Wisconsin and Michigan researchers (Magen L. Shaughnessy, Susannah J. Sample, Carter Abicht, Caitlin Heaton, Peter Muir)  studied the clinical records of 79 dogs diagnosed with immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA). Of those 79 dogs, 13 had erosive IMPA, of which, two were cavalier King Charles spaniels. The 13 affected dogs had erosive lesions in their carpal joints. The estimated median synovial fluid lymphocyte count for dogs with erosive IMPA was significantly greater than that for dogs with nonerosive IMPA. Results indicated erosive IMPA most commonly affected the carpal joints of middle-aged small-breed dogs. (See left carpus of an 8-year-old spayed female Cavalier King Charles Spaniel with subjectively moderate subchondral bone lysis accompanied by severe synovial swelling -- in x-ray at right.)

November 2016: French study adds cavaliers to list of breeds predisposed to facial nerve paralysis. In a November 2016 abstract, French researchers studied 69 dogs with facial nerve paralysis. The report does not provide a count of cavalier King Charles spaniels included in the study, but the researchers concluded that the CKCS and the French bulldog should be added to the list of predisposed breeds to the disorder. Additionally, they found:

"Idiopathic facial paralysis was diagnosed in 48% of dogs. Vestibular signs were the most common additional clinical signs and were observed in 36% of dogs with idiopathic facial paralysis. Peripheral nervous system disease was diagnosed in 19% of dogs, and central nervous system disease occurred in 30% of dogs. ... Improved diagnostic methods enabled the diagnosis of a higher percentage of inflammatory/infectious diseases, which were absent in the central nervous system aetiologies of a previous similar study, and revealed metabolic (hypothyroidism), inflammatory and neoplastic aetiologies for peripheral nervous system disease."

November 2016: French study of 1,668 cavalier bitches shows birth, still-born, and post natal mortality rates. In an October 2016 report by a team of French reproduction specialists (Sylvie Chastant-Maillard [right], C Guillemot, A Feugier, C Mariani, A Grellet, H Mila), they studied 2,561 heats of 1,668 cavalier King Charles spaniels in France. They found:

Number of puppies born per litter: 4.4 ± 2.0
Stillbirth rate: 8.8%
Post-natal mortality rate: 7.5%
Number of puppies surviving per whelping: 3.7 ± 2.0

September 2016: Cavaliers show temporomandibular joint dysplasia in a Brazilian study. In an August 2016 study, eleven cavalier King Charles spaniels were included in a review of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) in 48 dogs, examining the morphologic and morphometric features of the TMJ using computed tomography (CT). (The TMJ is the hinge of the jaw that connects the jaw to the temporal bones of the skull.) The researchers found:

"The TMJs of Cavalier King Charles spaniels showed remarkably lower values associated with shallow mandibular fossae and incongruent articular heads.

"Cavalier King Charles spaniels had the shallowest mandibular fossae of all breeds. The retroarticular process appeared as a bony extension on the medioventral aspect of the mandibular fossa, articulating with the caudomedial aspect of the condylar process. This bony extension was prominent in Labrador retrievers, German shepherds, boxers, and English bulldogs. The retroarticular process was less developed in cocker spaniels, shih tzus, and pug. In Cavalier King Charles spaniels, it was small or absent.

"The wide angles documented in Labrador retrievers, German shepherds, boxers, and English bulldogs were consistent with long and well-defined retroarticular processes, whereas the narrow angles found in cocker spaniels, shih tzus, Cavalier King Charles spaniels, and a pug were due to less developed or absent retroarticular processes. A dramatically reduced ventral extension of the retroarticular process, as observed in cocker spaniels and Cavaliers King Charles spaniels in this study, may permit slight caudal dislocation of the head of the condylar process and predispose to TMJ instability.

"German shepherds, boxers, and English bulldogswere consistent with deeper (more concave) mandibular fossae and more prominent retroarticular processes, whereas the narrow angles found in cocker spaniels, shih tzus, CavalierKing Charles spaniels, and the pug were due to more shallower (less concave) mandibular fossae and less prominent or absent retroarticular processes.

"The present study agrees with the asymptomatic dysplastic condition of the TMJ previously reported in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel and suggests that this morphological features may exist in certain dog breeds such as cocker spaniels and small breeds such as shih tzus and pugs."

Diagram C of Figure 11 below shows the severe shallowness of the CKCS's mandibular fossa, compared to those of the Labrador retriever, German shepherd boxer, and English bulldog (diagram A) and those of the Cocker spaniel, pug, and Shih Tzus (diagram C).

Comparison of TMJs

July 2016: Gestation period of the CKCS is found to be shorter than that of the average canine bitch. In a July 2016 poster abstract, a team of N.C. State veterinary theriogenology researchers (K. S. Baltutis, T. M. Beachler, S. K. Lyle, C. S. Bailey) compared the gestation periods of 17 cavaliers and 17 bitches of other breeds. They found that the CKCSs' average gestation period of 62.8 days was 3.2% shorter than the reported canine gestation length of 65 days and roughly two days shorter than that of the control group.  They concluded that the implications of this study include recommendations for scheduling a timed Caesarean section and approaches to managing late-term complications. See, also this June 2016 post.

July 2016: Dr. Simon Swift inserts wire stent to relieve pulmonic stenosis in a Havanese.  In a July 2016 nePulmonic Valve Stentwspaper article, veterinary cardiologist Simon Swift of the University of Florida's veterinary college reported a case of a Havanese spaniel with pulmonic stenosis which for which a valvuloplasty procedure was unsuccessful because the dog had an "unusually thick right ventricle and abnormal valve". Dr. Swift and a surgical team, which included the university's pediatric cardiology specialists, put a stent, a metal tube made of wire mesh (see photo at left), on a balloon and entered the chest straight into the heart. Then, they expanded the balloon to open the stent and relieve the blockage in his artery, Swift said.

July 2016: Thai veterinarians successfully relieve pulmonic stenosis in a cavalier, using valvulopasty. In a July 2016 article, a team of Thailand veterinary surgeons and other specialists (Chollada Buranakarl, Anusak Kijtawornrat, Wasan Udayachalerm, Sirilak Disatian Surachetpong, Saikaew Sutayatram, Pasakorn Briksawan, Sumit Durongphongtorn, Rampaipat Tungjitpeanpong, Nardtiwa Chaivoravitsakul) report a successful insertion of a balloon in the pulmonary valves of three dogs (valvuloplasty), including a cavalier King Valvuloplasty balloon cathetersCharles spaniel (#2 in the report), affected by pulmonic stenosis. Pulmonic stenosis is a common congenital cardiac defect, characterized by the narrowing and obstruction of blood through the heart's pulmonary valve, which connects the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle chamber. In this study, the balloon was inserted by a catheter and then inflated at the location of the narrowing of the pulmonary valve. (See examples of balloon catheters at right.) Once the balloon was inflated, the narrowing of the valve disappeared and the pressure through the valve greatly decreased in the CKCS.

PuppiesJune 2016: Study of six cavalier pregnancies shows average ovulation periods and progesterone concentrations. In a June 2016 article comparing the progesterone (P4) concentrations of cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS) and Bernese mountain dogs, the Danish researchers (K. Thejll Kirchhoff, S. Goericke-Pesch) found that six CKCSs delivered from one and five puppies, between 62 and 65 days after ovulation. The bitches' P4 concentrations continuously decreased from the first to the last sampling during pregnancy.

January 2016: Secondary hepatic lesions were found in 64.8% of post-mortem samples of cavaliers in UK study. In a January 2016 article, UK researchers (Kent, Andrew C. C.; Constantino-Casas, Fernando; Rusbridge, Clare; Corcoran, Brendan; Carter, Margaret; Ledger, Tania; Watson, Penny J.) searched for pancreatic, hepatic (liver) and renal (kidney) lesions in post-mortem samples from Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs). Primary hepatic lesions were present in only 11.1% of cases, but secondary hepatic lesions were more common and were present in 64.8%. The researchers report that cavaliers have similar rates of hepatic disease as the general population.

November 2015: Study shows cavalier puppies' emotional and behavioral development are later than two other breeds. In a July 2015 study of the level of fear avoidance among puppies of different breeds, it has been shown that cavalier puppies from 4 to 10 weeks of age exhibited a later onset of fear-related avoidance behavior when compared with German shepherd dog puppies and Yorkshire terrier puppies. In the same study, CKCSs demonstrated the highest incidence of crouching in response to a loud noise,  followed by the Yorkshire terriers. Breed differences in puppy mobility were observed beginning at 6 weeks of age, with German shepherd dogs demonstrating the most mobility and cavaliers the least. The authors concluded that the results of their study support the hypothesis that emotional and behavioral development, as well as the onset of fear-related avoidance behavior, varies among breeds of domestic dogs.

September 2015: International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force reports on myoclonus in cavaliers. In a September 2014 article, the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force, consisting of neurologists and other veterinary specialists from the US, UK, and throughout Europe (Velia-Isabel Hülsmeyer, Andrea Fischer, Paul J.J. Mandigers, Luisa DeRisio, Mette Berendt, Clare Rusbridge, Sofie F.M. Bhatti, Akos Pakozdy, Edward E. Patterson, Simon Platt, Rowena M.A. Packer, Holger A. Volk) issues their massive "current understanding of idiopathic epilepsy of genetic or suspected genetic origin in purebred dogs", including, of course, the cavalier King Charles spaniel. Their primary findings regarding the CKCS  included "myoclonus" (spasmodic jerky contraction of groups of muscles) as a potential breed-specific disease which may mimic idiopathic epilepsy. They stated:

"Older Cavalier King Charles spaniels (>5 years old) have a high prevalence of myoclonus, which manifests most commonly as a brief jerking of the head and forelimbs when the dog is standing or sitting. Initially the syndrome is relatively benign but can be progressive with affected dogs suffering frequent jerks which may interfere with function, for example cause the dog to fall or stumble. The syndrome can be confused with focal epileptic seizures but generally does not respond to AEDs [antiepileptic drugs] licenced for dogs although may respond to levetiracetam." 

August 2015: Japanese researchers find porencephaly in a fly-biting cavalier King Charles spaniel. CKCS porencephaly lesion at arrowIn a July 2015 article, a team of Japanese veterinary researchers (Ai Hori, Kiwamu Hanazono, Kenjirou Miyoshi, Tetsuya Nakade) report discovering porencephaly -- a congenital cerebral cavity, filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) -- in a 9 month old female cavalier King Charles spaniel. The dog exhibited symptoms of chewing and excitement before secondary generalized seizures and fly-biting after the seizures for 5–6 min.  (At right, see MRI scan of CKCS' lesion at arrow.) They examined a total of two affected dogs and one affected cat. Their aim of the study was to find if there was any hippocampal atrophy in cases of porencephaly, and they found in all three cases, less hippocampal volume or hippocampal loss at the lesion side or the larger defect side. They also noted that the severity of seizure symptoms was attributed to cyst ratio and asymmetric ratio. Both the cyst ratio and asymmetric ratio had correlation with the seizure symptoms. They concluded that porencephaly may coexist with hippocampal atrophy, and that clinicians should evaluate carefully the hippocampal volume and asymmetry in MRI, because the atrophy may have relationships with porencephaly-related seizures.

June 2015: Cavalier displays tremors, facial twitches, and salivation syndromes due to pyrethrin poisoning from insecticides. AdvantageIn a September 2014 article, a team of Israeli veterinarians and researchers (Sigal Klainbart, Yael Merbl, Efrat Kelmer, Olga Cuneah, Nir Edery, Jakob A. Shimshon) reported on the diagnosis and treatment of a cavalier King Charles spaniel suffering from generalized body tremors, facial twitching, and salivation. Biospotix spray (geraniol essential oils) and Advantage spot on had been applied on the dog’s skin, and the owner’s household was sprayed against insects using a commercial pyrethroid preparation (Admiral) 24 hours before clinical signs appeared. The dog was otherwise healthy, fully vaccinated, lived in an apartment and leashwalked. They diagnosed pyrethroid toxicosis. They treated with diazepam, methocarbamol and IV fluids, followed by general anesthesia with isofluran and diazepam CRI. After twenty-four hours, the dog was no longer under general anesthesia. Seventy two hours after admission the dog was discharged, was alert and responsive when stimulated, and walked and ate normally.

August 2014: UK vets find follicular cystititis in a cavalier. A team of veterinarians at the University of Glasgow in the UK report in August 2014 the first case of follicular cystitis in a dog, a female cavalier King Charles spaniel. Cystitis is inflammation of the bladder. Most cases of the inflammation are caused by a bacterial infection, and they are called a urinary tract infection (UTI). Follicular cystitis is characterized by the presence of lymphoid follicles with germinal center formation.

RETURN TO TOP

RETURN TO TOP

Veterinary Resources

Prevalence of disorders recorded in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. Jennifer F Summers, Dan G O’Neill, David B Church, Peter C Thomson, Paul D McGreevy, David C Brodbelt. Canine Genetics & Epidemiology. April 2015;2:4. Quote: "Background: Concerns have been raised over breed-related health issues in purebred dogs, but reliable prevalence estimates for disorders within specific breeds are sparse. Electronically stored patient health records from primary-care practice are emerging as a useful source of epidemiological data in companion animals. This study used large volumes of health data from UK primary-care practices participating in the VetCompass animal health surveillance project to evaluate in detail the disorders diagnosed in a random selection of over 50% of dogs recorded as Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs). Confirmation of breed using available microchip and Kennel Club (KC) registration data was attempted. Results: In total, 3624 dogs were recorded as CKCSs within the VetCompass database of which 143 (3.9%) were confirmed as KC-registered via microchip identification linkage of VetCompass to the KC database. 1875 dogs (75 KC registered and 1800 of unknown KC status, 52% of both groups) were randomly sampled for detailed clinical review. Clinical data associated with veterinary care were recorded in 1749 (93.3%) of these dogs. The most common specific disorders recorded during the study period were heart murmur (541 dogs, representing 30.9% of study group), diarrhoea of unspecified cause (193 dogs, 11.0%), dental disease (166 dogs, 9.5%), otitis externa (161, 9.2%), conjunctivitis (131, 7.4%) and anal sac infection (129, 7.4%). The five most common disorder categories were cardiac (affecting 31.7% of dogs), dermatological (22.2%), ocular (20.6%), gastrointestinal (19.3%) and dental/periodontal disorders (15.2%). Discussion and conclusions: Study findings suggest that many of the disorders commonly affecting CKCSs are largely similar to those affecting the general dog population presented for primary veterinary care in the UK. However, cardiac disease (and MVD in particular) continues to be of particular concern in this breed. Further work: This work highlights the value of veterinary practice based breed-specific epidemiological studies to provide targeted and evidence-based health policies. Further studies using electronic patient records in other breeds could highlight their potential disease predispositions."

Addison's Disease --hypoadrenocorticism:

Naturally Occurring Adrenocortical Insufficiency – An Epidemiological Study Based on a Swedish-Insured Dog Population of 525,028 Dogs. J.M. Hanson, K. Tengvall, B.N. Bonnett, Å. Hedhammar. J. Vet. Int. Med. January 2016;30(1):76-84. Quote: "Background: Naturally occurring adrenocortical insufficiency (NOAI) in dogs is considered an uncommon disease with good prognosis with hormonal replacement treatment. However, there are no epidemiological studies with estimates for the general dog population. Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of NOAI in a large population of insured dogs. Animals: Data were derived from 525,028 client-owned dogs insured by a Swedish insurance company representing 2,364,652 dog-years at risk (DYAR) during the period between 1995–2006. Methods: Retrospective cohort study. Incidence rates, prevalences, and relative risks for dogs with NOAI (AI with no previous claim for hypercortisolism), were calculated for the whole dog population, and for subgroups divided by breed and sex. ... The majority of dogs with NOAI have primary AI (ie, Addison′s disease), which is most commonly considered to be associated with adrenalitis and adrenocortical atrophy, supported by evidence from pathology-based reports of dogs with AI. ... Mortality rates were calculated and compared in dogs with NOAI and the remaining dogs overall. Results: In total 534 dogs were identified with NOAI. The overall incidence was 2.3 cases per 10,000 DYAR. [The cavalier King Charles spaniel (CKCS) incidence rate was 1.39 cases per 10,000 DYAR.] The relative risk of disease was significantly higher in the Portuguese Water Dog, Standard Poodle, Bearded Collie, Cairn Terrier, and Cocker Spaniel compared with other breeds combined. Female dogs overall were at higher risk of developing AI than male dogs (RR 1.85; 95% CI, 1.55–2.22; P < .001). [For female CKCSs, the RR was 1.30(0.220 - 8.87).] The relative risk of death was 1.9 times higher in dogs with NOAI than in dogs overall. [For CKCSs, the relative risk of death was 1.39 times higher for dogs with NOAI.] Conclusion and Clinical Importance: The data supports the existence of breed-specific differences in incidence rates of NOAI in dogs."

Hydrocortisone in the management of acute hypoadrenocorticism in dogs: a retrospective series of 30 cases. E. Gunn, R. E. Shiel, C. T. Mooney. J. Small Anim. Pract. April 2016;57(5):227-233. Quote: "Objectives: The objectives of this study were to describe the efficacy, outcome and adverse effects of intravenous hydrocortisone and fluid therapy for the management of acute hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. Methods: A retrospective review of dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism receiving intravenous hydrocortisone and fluid therapy was performed. Results: Thirty newly-diagnosed dogs were included. There was an excellent clinical response, with all dogs surviving to discharge within a median of 2 days. In 23 cases with complete data, the mean rate of change of sodium over 24 hours was 0·48 (±0·28) mmol/L/hour, while the mean rate of change of potassium was −0·12 (±0·06) mmol/L/hour. Circulating potassium concentration normalised in 68·4% and 100% of cases of by 12 and 24 hours, respectively. Additional treatment for hyperkalaemia was not found necessary. Plasma sodium concentration increased by >12 mmol/L/24 hours on 7 of 23 (30·4%) occasions. One dog exhibited associated temporary neurological signs. Clinical Significance: Intravenous hydrocortisone infusion and fluid therapy for the management of acute hypoadrenocorticism is associated with a rapid resolution of hyperkalaemia and is well tolerated with few adverse effects. Regular electrolyte monitoring is required to ensure that rapid increases in sodium concentration are avoided."

aortic_thromboembolism_--_femoral_artery_occlusion:

Clinical and neurological characteristics of aortic thromboembolism in dogs. Gonçalves R1, Penderis J, Chang YP, Zoia A, Mosley J, Anderson TJ. J Small Anim Pract. 2008 Apr;49(4):178-84. Quote: "To characterise the clinical presentation and neurological abnormalities in dogs affected by aortic thromboembolism. The medical records of 13 dogs diagnosed with aortic thromboembolism as the cause of the clinical signs, and where a complete neurological examination was performed, were reviewed retrospectively. The onset was acute in only four dogs, chronic in five dogs (with all of these presenting as exercise intolerance) or chronic with acute deterioration in four dogs. Dogs with an acute onset of clinical signs were more severely affected exhibiting neurological deficits, while dogs with a chronic onset of disease predominantly presented with the exercise intolerance and minimal deficits. The locomotor deficits included exercise intolerance with pelvic limb weakness (five of 13), pelvic limb ataxia (one of 13), monoparesis (two of 13), paraparesis (two of 13), non-ambulatory paraparesis (two of 13) and paraplegia (one of 13). There was an apparent male predisposition and the cavalier King charles spaniel was overrepresented. The rate of onset of clinical signs appears to segregate dogs affected by aortic thromboembolism into two groups, with different clinical characteristics and outcomes. Dogs with an acute onset of the clinical signs tend to be more severely affected, while dogs with a chronic onset predominantly present with exercise intolerance. It is therefore important to consider aortic thromboembolism as a differential diagnosis in dogs with an acute onset of pelvic limb neurological deficits and in dogs with longer standing exercise intolerance."

arthritis:

Idiopathic, non-infectious, non-erosive arthritis in a bitch. C.R. Hutchings, G.A. Verkerk, K.J. Kissling. New Zealand Vet. J. 1980;28(5). Quote: A 2 1/2-year-old Cavalier King Charles Spaniel bitch was examined because of recurring episodes of lameness and joint swelling over a period of 2 years. Clinical examination, radiography, serology, joint-fluid analysis and histopathology of the joint capsule led to a diagnosis of idiopathic, non-infectious, non-erosive arthritis. Combination therapy with prednisolone, cyclophosphamide and azothioprine produced a rapid improvement in the dog's condition. The features of this disease and its relationship to rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosis are discussed.

Clinical features and pathological joint changes in dogs with erosive immune-mediated polyarthritis: 13 cases (2004–2012). Magen L. Shaughnessy, Susannah J. Sample, Carter Abicht, Caitlin Heaton, Peter Muir. JAVMA. November 2016;249(10):1156-1164. Quote: Objective: To evaluate the clinical features and pathological joint changes in dogs with erosive immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA). Design: Retrospective case series. Animals: 13 dogs with erosive IMPA [including two cavalier King Charles spaniels (15.4%)] and 66 dogs with nonerosive IMPA. Procedures: The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was reviewed to identify dogs with IMPA that were examined between October 2004 and December 2012. Left carpus of CKCSFor each IMPA-affected dog, information extracted from the medical record included signalment, diagnostic test results, radiographic findings, and treatments administered. Dogs were classified as having erosive IMPA if review of radiographs revealed the presence of bone lysis in multiple joints, and descriptive data were generated for those dogs. All available direct smears of synovial fluid samples underwent cytologic evaluation. The synovial fluid total nucleated cell count and WBC differential count were estimated and compared between dogs with erosive IMPA and dogs with nonerosive IMPA. Results: 13 of 79 (16%) dogs had erosive IMPA. Dogs with erosive IMPA had a mean ± SD age of 7.1 ± 2.4 years and body weight of 8.3 ± 3.4 kg (18.3 ± 7.5 lb). All 13 dogs had erosive lesions in their carpal joints. (See left carpus of an 8-year-old spayed female Cavalier King Charles Spaniel with subjectively moderate subchondral bone lysis accompanied by severe synovial swelling -- in x-ray at right).The estimated median synovial fluid lymphocyte count for dogs with erosive IMPA was significantly greater than that for dogs with nonerosive IMPA. All dogs received immunosuppressive therapy with leflunomide (n = 9), prednisone (3), or prednisone-azathioprine (1). Conclusions & Clinical Relevance: Results indicated erosive IMPA most commonly affected the carpal joints of middle-aged small-breed dogs. Further genetic analyses and analysis of lymphocyte-subsets are warranted for dogs with erosive IMPA.

RETURN TO TOP

Bell's palsy:

Bell's palsy with concomitant idiopathic cranial nerve polyneuropathy in seven dogs. L. Motta, U. Michal Altay, G. C. Skerritt. J.Small Animal Practice. July 2011;5297):397. Quote: "Recently, we encountered seven dogs (two boxers, one Labrador retriever, three cavalier King Charles spaniels and one Hungarian vizsla; median age 6.7 years; 5:2 male:female ratio) that were referred for investigation of acute onset of unilateral facial nerve paralysis." 

RETURN TO TOP

canine atopic dermatitis:

Malassezia dermatitis in the dog: a retrospective histopathological and immunopathological study of 86 cases (1990-95). Elizabeth A. Mauldin, Danny W. Scott, William H. Miller, Jr., Christina A. Smith. Vet. Derm. September 1997;8(3):191-202. Quote: In our study, West Highland White Terriers, English Setters, Shih Tzus, Basset Hounds and American Cocker Spaniels were at increased risk for developing Malassezia dermatitis. ... Other breeds reported to be at increased risk [for developing Malassezia dermatitis] include ... Cavalier King Charles spaniels... .

Malassezia Dermatitis. Jennifer L. Matousek, Karen L. Campbell. Compendium. March 2002;24(3):224-232. Quote: Other breeds of dogs predisposed to Malassezia dermatitis and otitis include the ... cavalier King Charles spaniel ... . Breed prevalence may suggest an inherited predilection for Malassezia dermatitis or may be a reflection of a hereditary predisposition for underlying disorders (e.g., hypersensitivity).

The method of application and short term results of tympanostomy tubes for the treatment of primary secretory otitis media in three Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dogs. Corfield GS, Burrows AK, Imani P, Bryden SL. Aust Vet J. March 2008;86(3):88-94. Quote: Case 1: A 4-year-old desexed female Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was presented to the Murdoch University Veterinary Hospital with a history of chronic, non-seasonal, bilateral otitis externa of approximately 2 years duration in conjunction with a recent onset of pedal and facial pruritus. ... Cytological examination of otic exudates retrieved from both ears ... revealed Malassezia organisms ... predominantly adhering to corneocytes. Cytological examination of tape strip samples collected from the interdigital and interpad region of all four feet, examined as above, revealed cocci and Malassezia organisms 1 to 3/OIF. A provisional diagnosis of bilateral Malassezia otitis externa and bacterial and Malassezia pododermatitis secondary to underlying hypersensitivity dermatitis (atopic dermatitis or adverse food reaction) was made. ... Case 3: A 6-year-old desexed female Cavalier King Charles Spaniel presented for assessment of presumed bilateral deafness, apparent for the previous 6 months. ... Cytological examination of samples of otic discharge taken from the left and right horizontal ear canals revealed Malassezia 4 to 6/OIF, and 6 to 8/OIF respectively. ... Oral ketoconazole 5 mg/kg every 12 hours was prescribed for 4 weeks to treat the Malassezia infection. ... In addition the first dog received topical betamethasone otic drops, a topical medicated shampoo and a systemic antifungal agent for the treatment of Malassezia otitis externa and bacterial and Malassezia pododermatitis. Dog 3 received a systemic antifungal agent for treatment of bilateral Malassezia otitis externa.

Breed and site predispositions of dogs with atopic dermatitis: a comparison of five locations in three continents. K. Jaeger, M. Linek, H.T. Power, S.V. Bettenay, S. Zabel, R.A.W. Rosychuk, Ralf S. Mueller. Vet. Dermatology. February 2010;21(1):119-123. Quote: "The objectives of this multicentre study were to analyse and compare breed predispositions and lesion distributions of 552 dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis from five different dermatologic referral centres located in Australia, Germany (2) and the United States (2). Breeds were compared with the canine population in the respective locations. Breed predispositions varied from geographical site, although golden retrievers and German shepherd dogs were predisposed in three of five practices. [Cavalier King Charles spaniels were predisposed in Australia.] Lesions were present most commonly on the paws (62%), ventrum (51%), ears (48%) and face (39%). Various breeds had specific site predilections. Based on this study, breed predispositions can vary greatly both between continents and also between different locations on the same continent. In addition, some breeds showed predispositions for certain body sites which also varied in some instances with the geographical location.

Review: Clinical and histological manifestations of canine atopic dermatitis. Petra Bizikova, Domenico Santoro, Rosanna Marsella, Tim Nuttall, Melissa N. C. Eisenschenk, Cherie M. Pucheu-Haston. Vet. Dermatology. February 2015. Quote: "Background: Many studies focusing on clinical and histological signs of canine atopic dermatitis (AD) have been published since its early descriptions decades ago. Findings of these studies contributed to our current knowledge about the disease pathogenesis and allowed establishment of diagnostic criteria used by clinicians and researchers. Objectives: This review serves as an update on the clinical and histological features of canine AD published by the American College of Veterinary Dermatology Task Force on Canine Atopic Dermatitis in 2001 and summarizes the recent discoveries in these fields. Results: The overall findings of studies focusing on clinical features mirrored those published by the Task Force in 2001. The novelty was the larger number of animals included in these studies, which allowed establishment of a new set of diagnostic criteria that exceeded the sensitivity and specificity of the previous criteria. The same study uncovered some clinical differences between dogs with food-induced and nonfood-induced AD; however, the authors concluded that these two entities cannot be distinguished based on clinical signs only. Another study demonstrated some major breed-specific phenotypes. Several publications addressed the histological features of canine AD skin lesions in experimental models of AD, but none of those addressed naturally occurring lesions. Nevertheless, the histopathological description of the skin reactions was generally similar to that published by the Task Force in 2001. Conclusions: Considerable work has been done in recent years to provide a better definition of the clinical appearance and histopathology of canine AD. New sets of diagnostic criteria have been developed, and additional breed-associated differences in phenotypes have been demonstrated.

Increased numbers of peripheral blood CD34+ cells in dogs with canine atopic dermatitis. Vincent Bruet, Blandine Lieubeau, Julie Herve, Anne Roussel, Laëtitia Imparato, Jean-Claude Desfontis, Patrick Bourdeau. Vet. Dermatology. June 2015;26(3):160-e33. Quote: "Background: The bone marrow may be involved in human atopic diseases, as shown by the release of CD34+ cells into the peripheral blood. Hypothesis/Objectives: The aim was to determine the numbers of CD34+ cells in atopic dogs. Animals: The following three groups of dogs were studied: 27 dogs with nonfood-induced atopic dermatitis (NFICAD)[including a cavalier King Charles spaniel]; 16 dogs with nonallergic inflammatory diseases; and 13 healthy control dogs [including a cavalier King Charles spaniel]. Methods: Dogs with NFICAD were selected after fulfilment of Favrot's criteria and exclusion of other pruritic dermatoses, including flea infestation and adverse reaction to foods. The Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-03 and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for pruritus were used to quantify clinical signs. A phycoerythrin-conjugated anticanine CD34 antibody was used to stain peripheral blood CD34+ cells, and these were enumerated using a flow cytometer. The CD34+ cell counts were compared between groups and tested (in the NFICAD group) for correlation with the severity of clinical signs. Results: The numbers of peripheral CD34+ cells in dogs with NFICAD (median 1.7) were statistically higher than in dogs with other nonallergic inflammatory diseases (median 1.0; P = 0.01) and healthy control dogs (median 0.9; P = 0.009). In dogs with NFICAD, there was no correlation between CD34+ cell numbers and CADESI-03 scores or owner-assessed pruritus (VAS score). Conclusions and clinical importance: The results of this study suggest the possible involvement of CD34+ cells in dogs with NFICAD. The role of CD34+ cells in the aetiopathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis remains to be determined."

Long-term compassionate use of oclacitinib in dogs with atopic and allergic skin disease: safety, efficacy and quality of life. Sallie B. Cosgrove, Dawn M. Cleaver, Vickie L. King, Amy R. Gilmer, Anne E. Daniels, Jody A. Wren, Michael R. Stegemann. Vet. Dermatology. June 2015;26(3):171-e35. Quote: "Background: Oclacitinib is safe and effective for treating dogs with pruritus associated with allergic and atopic dermatitis, based on randomized clinical trials of up to 4 months duration. Hypothesis/Objectives: This study assessed long-term safety, efficacy and quality of life of oclacitinib-treated dogs enrolled in a compassionate use programme. Animals: Two hundred and forty-seven client-owned dogs with allergic skin disease that had previously benefited from oclacitinib therapy [including cavalier King Charles spaniels]. Methods: Dogs were enrolled in an open-label study at 26 veterinary clinics. Dogs received 0.4–0.6 mg/kg oclacitinib twice a day for 14 days, then once a day for up to 630 days. Assessments were performed at ~90 day intervals. Owners completed a quality-of-life survey and assessed pruritus using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at each clinic visit. Veterinarians assessed dermatitis using a similar VAS. Abnormal health events, concomitant medication and clinical pathology results were summarized. Results: Visual Analog Scale scores showed improvement from baseline at all time points. The percentage of dogs showing ≥50% reduction from baseline on day 90 was 63.9% for pruritus and 66.4% for dermatitis. Owners saw a positive impact on quality of life in >91% of all dogs. Urinary tract infection/cystitis, vomiting, otitis, pyoderma and diarrhoea were the most frequently reported (>5% of dogs) abnormal clinical signs. Haematology and serum chemistry means remained within the normal reference ranges. Concomitant medications were well tolerated. Conclusions and clinical importance: Results indicated that oclacitinib was safe and efficacious for long-term use and improved the quality of life for dogs in this study."

RETURN TO TOP

dilated cardiomyopathy:

Effect of pimobendan on case fatality rate in Doberman pinschers with congestive heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy. O’Grady MR, Minors SL, O’Sullivan ML, Horne R. J. Vet. Internal Med. July 2008;22(4):897–904. Quote: Background: Despite traditional therapy of a diuretic, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, digoxin, or a combination of these drugs, survival of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is low. Pimobendan, an inodilator, has both inotropic and balanced peripheral vasodilatory properties. Hypothesis: Pimobendan when added to conventional therapy will improve morbidity and reduce case fatality rate in Doberman Pinschers with congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by DCM. Animals: Sixteen Doberman Pinschers in CHF caused by DCM. Methods: A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with treatment failure as the primary and quality of life (QoL) indices as secondary outcome variables. Therapy consisted of furosemide (per os [PO] as required) and benazepril hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg PO q12h) and dogs were randomized in pairs and by sex to receive pimobendan (0.25 mg/kg PO q12h) or placebo (1 tablet PO q12h). Results: Pimobendan-treated dogs had a significant improvement in time to treatment failure (pimobendan median, 130.5 days; placebo median, 14 days; P= .002; risk ratio = 0.35, P= .003, lower 5% confidence limit = 0.13, upper 95% confidence limit = 0.71). Number and rate of dogs reaching treatment failure in the placebo group precluded the analysis of QoL. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Pimobendan should be used as a first-line therapeutic in Doberman Pinschers for the treatment of CHF caused by DCM.

Canine dilated cardiomyopathy: a retrospective study of signalment, presentation and clinical findings in 369 cases. M. W. S. Martin, M. J. Stafford Johnson, B. Celona. J. Small Anim. Pract. January 2009;50(1):23–29. Quote: Objective: To review the clinical and diagnostic findings and survival of dilated cardiomyopathy from a large population of dogs in England. Methods: A retrospective study of the case records of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy collected between January 1993 and May 2006. Results: There were 369 dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy of which all were pure-bred dogs except for four. The most commonly affected breeds were [59] dobermanns and [53] boxers. [There were two cavalier King Charles spaniesls.] Over 95 per cent of dogs weighed more than 15 kg and 73 per cent were male. The median duration of signs before referral was three weeks with 65 per cent presenting in stage 3 heart failure. The most common signs were breathlessness (67 per cent) and coughing (64 per cent). The majority of dogs (89 per cent) had an arrhythmia at presentation and 74 per cent of dogs had radiographic signs of pulmonary oedema or pleural effusion. The median survival time was 19 weeks. Clinical Significance: Dilated cardiomyopathy occurs primarily in medium to large breed pure-bred dogs, and males are more frequently affected than females. The duration of clinical signs before referral is often short and the survival times are poor. Greater awareness of affected breeds, clinical signs and diagnostic findings may help in early recognition of this disease which often has a short clinical phase.

RETURN TO TOP

ectrodactyly:

Ectrodactyly (Split-hand Deformity) in the Dog. Colin B. Carrig, Jeffrey A. Wortman, Earl L. Morris, William E. Blevins, Charles R. Root, Griselda F. Hanlon, Peter F. Suter. Vet. Rad. & Ultra. May 1981;22(3):123-144. Quote: Radiographs of 14 dogs with ectrodactyly of the forelimb were evaluated and the defect classified according to the site of division of the longitudinal axis of the paw. The majority of separations occurred between metacarpal bones one and two, although separations were also noted between metacarpal bones two and three, two and four, and three and four. Other lesions noted in affected limbs included digit contracture, digit aplasia, metacarpal hypoplasia and metacarpal fusions. Bilateral involvement was noted in only one of 14 cases. No breed or sex predisposition was found and there was equal involvement of the left and right limbs.

RETURN TO TOP

elbow luxation:

Unilateral congenital elbow luxation in a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. Heather L. McDonell. Can Vet J. Nov 2004;45(11):941–943. Quote: "A 7-week-old, intact female, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was evaluated for nonweight bearing lameness of the right forelimb. Type III unilateral congenital elbow luxation was diagnosed radiographically. After surgical reduction, temporary placement of a transarticular pin, and external splinting of the joint, full weight bearing was achieved. Radial head subluxation persisted."

Fragmentation of the Medial Coronoid Process in Toy and Small Breed Dogs: 13 Elbows (2000–2012). Eric C. Hans, W. Brian Saunders, Brian S. Beale, Don A. Hulse. J. Amer. Anim. Hosp. Assn. June 2016. Quote: Fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (FCP) is an uncommon cause of thoracic limb lameness in toy and small breed dogs. Arthroscopic findings and treatment remains poorly described. The objective of this study was to describe the arthroscopic findings and short-term outcome following arthroscopic treatment in toy and small breed dogs with FCP. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Arthroscopic findings were available from 13 elbows (12 dogs). Outcome data ≥4 wk postoperatively were available for nine elbows. Owner satisfaction scores were available for 10 elbows. Common preoperative findings included lameness, elbow pain, and imaging abnormalities consistent with FCP. Displaced FCP was the most common FCP lesion identified. Cartilage lesions at the medial coronoid process were identified in 92.3% of elbows (n = 12), with a median Outerbridge score of 4 (range 1–5). Concurrent cartilage lesions of the medial humeral condyle were identified in 76.9% of elbows (n = 10). Seven of nine elbows had full or acceptable function post-operatively. Median owner outcome satisfaction was 91% (range 10–100). FCP should be considered a cause of thoracic limb lameness in toy and small breed dogs. Arthroscopy can be safely and effectively used to diagnose and treat FCP in these breeds.

RETURN TO TOP

elbow fractures:

Condylar fractures of the humerus in the dog; a review of 133 cases. H. R. Denny. J. Small Anim. Pract. 1983;24:185-197. Quote: "Case histories have been reviewed of 133 dogs with condylar fractures of the humerus. The fractures were divided into three types: lateral condylar, medial condylar and intercondylar. For each type the breed and age prevalence, the cause of fracture, the method of fixation and the results of treatment have been recorded. ... Seventy-four dogs had fractures of the lateral condyle. The injury was seen in 20 breeds and Spaniels (38 per cent) were most frequently affected [including 5 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels]. The sex ratio was equal. Sixty-seven per cent of cases were under a year of age and the peak age prevalence was 4 months (Table 2). The commonest cause of fracture was a fall; other causes are listed in Table 3. In 65 dogs the fracture was stabilized with a single lag screw driven through the lateral condyle into the medial condyle." See Figure 6 (below) of the right elbow of a 4-month-old cavalier

Condylar fractures of the humerus in a CKCS


Intraosseous stress distribution and bone interaction during load application across the canine elbow joint: A preliminary finite element analysis for determination of condylar fracture pathogenesis in immature and mature dogs. Beatrice Böhme, Vinciane d'Otreppe, Jean-Phillippe Ponthot, Marc Balligan. Research in Vet. Sci. June 2016;106:143-148. Quote: "Distal humeral fractures are common fractures especially in immature small breed dogs. The pathogenesis is still unknown. ... A breed predisposition [of condylar fractures] seems to be present in Yorkshire Terriers, French and English Bulldogs, Pinscher, Springer Spaniels, Cocker Spaniels and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels... For this study, a three- dimensional bone model of the canine elbow was created and finite element analysis performed in order to determine the relationship between fracture type and bone interactions. Fused and non-fused humeral condyles were considered. A failure criterion was implemented to simulate the pathogenesis until fracture. Our study results confirm the clinical observation that lateral condylar fracture is the most common fracture type, implying interaction with the radius. Medial and Y-fractures are less common and occur always in interaction with the ulna whereas the radius causes lateral condylar fracture. Additionally, the fracture type is sensitive to bone positioning during trauma. The pathogenesis of distal humeral fractures is more complex than generally reported in the literature. Highlights: • Distal humeral fracture type may be sensitive to bone positioning during trauma. • The pathogenesis of condylar fractures is more complex than expected from literature. • Medial and Y condylar fractures occur after humeroulnar interaction. • Humero–radial interaction causes lateral condylar fractures."

The natural history of humeral intracondylar fissure: an observational study of 30 dogs. A. P. Moores, A. L. Moores. J. Sm. Anim. Pract. March 2017. Quote: Objectives: To determine the risk of condylar fracture, or of needing to have a transcondylar screw placed, and to identify risk factors in a cohort of dogs with humeral intracondylar fissure (also known as incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle) that was initially managed non-surgically. Methods: A retrospective owner survey of dogs diagnosed with humeral intracondylar fissure as an incidental finding and managed non-surgically with a minimum of two years follow-up. Body weight, age, estimated fissure size, gender and contralateral fracture at the time of diagnosis were evaluated as potential risk factors for the development of a humeral condylar fracture or for having a transcondylar screw placed. Results: Data were available for 30 dogs (34 elbows). ... There were 21 English springer spaniels, five cocker spaniels and one each of cavalier King Charles spaniel, Clumber spaniel, Welsh springer spaniel and Labrador. ... Six humeral condyles with a mean fissure size of 50% fractured at a mean of 14 months after diagnosis. A transcondylar screw was placed across two humeral condyles with fissure sizes of 60 and 100% at 11 and 17 months. No risk factors were identified for fracture/screw placement. For those cases that did not fracture or have a screw placed mean fissure size was 52% and mean follow-up time was 56 months (range 29 to 79 months). Clinical Significance: Eighteen percent of cases progressed to fracture and 24% in total required surgery. This information allows clinicians and owners to make an informed decision regarding surgery when faced with a dog with humeral intracondylar fissure identified as an incidental finding.

RETURN TO TOP

facial nerve paralysis:

Neurological diseases of the Cavalier King Charles spaniel.  Rusbridge, C. J.  Small Anim. Prac., June 2005, 46(6): 265-272. Quote: "Facial nerve paralysis (Rusbridge and others 2000) and deafness (Skerritt and Skerritt 2001) have also been associated with the condition. However idiopathic facial palsy is common in the CKCS and so is hearing impairment (Munro and Cox 1997)."

Neurological Diseases in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel: Chiari, Episodic Falling, and More. Jacques Penderis. March 2012. Quote: "Idiopathic facial nerve paralysis: this is the most common cause of facial nerve paralysis in dogs (75% of cases in one study) and is common in the CKCS. There is an acute onset of unilateral or bilateral facial nerve paralysis with no other abnormalities evident. In some cases this may be combined with idiopathic vestibular syndrome. In some cases there will be recovery in weeks, but in the majority of cases the abnormality is permanent. The deficits are largely cosmetic, although there is an increased risk of exposure corneal ulcers in dogs with protruding eyes. In other dogs little intervention is required, besides keeping the lips clean to prevent moist dermatitis in dogs with excessive drooling and drooping lips."

Facial Nerve Paralysis in Dogs: A Retrospective Study of 69 Cases. C. Ricco, L. Giraud, L. Cauzinille. J. Vet. Int. Med. November 2016;30(6):1953.  Quote: Facial paralysis is readily recognised in small-animal veterinary practice because of its manifestation of facial asymmetry; the idiopathic form has been previously reported to be present in 75% of dogs. The purpose of this study in dogs was to classify and determine the origin of facial nerve dysfunction using enhanced diagnostic procedures, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The medical records of 69 dogs admitted for facial paralysis were reviewed. Neurological examination confirmed facial nerve abnormalities, which were all investigated with MRI. Idiopathic facial paralysis was diagnosed in 48% of dogs. Vestibular signs were the most common additional clinical signs and were observed in 36% of dogs with idiopathic facial paralysis. Peripheral nervous system disease was diagnosed in 19% of dogs, and central nervous system disease occurred in 30% of dogs. Two new predisposed breeds are added, the French bulldog and the Cavalier King Charles spaniel. Improved diagnostic methods enabled the diagnosis of a higher percentage of inflammatory/infectious diseases, which were absent in the central nervous system aetiologies of a previous similar study, and revealed metabolic (hypothyroidism), inflammatory and neoplastic aetiologies for peripheral nervous system disease.

J-Lo's Story. James Warland. Animal Health Trust. April 2017. Quote: J-Lo, a seven year old Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, suffers from several different health problems, including severe sleep apnoea, syringomyelia and facial nerve paralysis, which causes her problems with her eyes. J-Lo’s sleep apnoea means she often wakes up suddenly because she can’t breathe. ... J-Lo has been referred to the Animal Health Trust (AHT), near Newmarket, several times and has used almost the full range of the AHT’s state-of-the-art equipment, including MRI and CT scans, fluoroscopy and endoscopy to help the vets of many different specialties at the AHT investigate her different health problems. ... James Warland, one of the vets who is treating J-Lo at the AHT, said: “J-Lo’s sleep apnoea has got so extreme that she has had to be hospitalised for monitoring and more tests to work out the best way to treat her. ... The main problem with J-Lo’s eyes is that the facial nerve paralysis prevents her from blinking. She has had a temporary surgery on her eyelids to help protect her eyes while we hope the nerve function will slowly return. Fortunately most dogs cope very well with such nerve paralysis, which can be permanent, as long as we can keep their eyes healthy. ... We look forward to seeing J-Lo for a check-up again soon.”

RETURN TO TOP

fear avoidance in puppies:

Breed-dependent differences in the onset of fear-related avoidance behavior in puppies. Mary Morrow, Joseph Ottobre, Ann Ottobre, Peter Neville, Normand St-Pierre, Nancy Dreschel, Joy L. Pate. J. Vet. Behavior: Clinical Apps. & Res. July 2015;10(4):286-294. Quote: The onset of fear-related avoidance behavior occurs during and, to some extent, defines the sensitive period of development in the domestic dog. The objectives of this study were to identify the onset of fear-related avoidance behavior and examine breed differences in this behavioral development. A total of 98 purebred puppies representing 3 breeds were tested, namely Cavalier King Charles spaniels (n = 33), Yorkshire terriers (n = 32), and German shepherd dogs (n = 33). Data were collected weekly beginning 4-5 weeks after birth until 10 weeks of age. Puppies took part in 4 tests during each visit: a novel item, seesaw, step, and loud noise test. During each test, the presence or absence of fear-related avoidance behavior and crouched posture were noted. Saliva was also collected to measure salivary cortisol concentrations in the puppies before and after testing. A later onset of fear-related avoidance behavior was observed in Cavalier King Charles spaniels compared with German shepherd dog and Yorkshire terrier puppies (F = 11.78, N = 29, P < 0.001). The proportion of treatment puppies that exhibited fear in response to the testing was also different (χ2 = 9.81, N = 56, P = 0.007): Yorkshire terriers (N = 14, 78%), Cavalier King Charles spaniel (N = 10, 53%), and German shepherd dogs (N = 5, 26%). Cortisol concentrations decreased with age. Cavalier King Charles spaniel puppies that demonstrated fear-related avoidance behavior exhibited a greater (t = 2.133, N = 79, P = 0.036) cortisol response than puppies that did not exhibit the behavior. Breed differences in the crouch response to the loud noise test, regardless of age, were observed (F = 18.26, N = 98, P < 0.001). Cavalier King Charles spaniels demonstrated the highest incidence of crouching followed by the Yorkshire Terriers. Breed differences in puppy mobility were observed beginning at 6 weeks of age, with German shepherd dogs demonstrating the most mobility and Cavalier King Charles spaniels the least. The results of this study support the hypothesis that emotional and behavioral development, as well as the onset of fear-related avoidance behavior, varies among breeds of domestic dogs.

RETURN TO TOP

follicular cystitis:

Follicular cystitis in a dog. Rui Moncao Sul, Gawain Hammond, Kathryn Pratschke. Vet.Rec. Case Report. August 2014;2(1). Quote: "A four-year-old female Cavalier King Charles Spaniel with a history of recurrent lower urinary tract disease refractory to treatment was referred to our hospital. Clinical examination was unremarkable apart from thickening of the dorsal vulva. Abdominal ultrasound was compatible with possible areas of mild thickening of the bladder wall. Lower genitourinary-contrast radiographic studies showed multiple small lesions in the bladder wall. Surgical biopsy of the bladder was compatible with follicular cystitis and excised uterine tissue was consistent with cervicitis. Clinical signs resolved after treatment with a combination of antibiosis, NSAIDs, pentosan polysulfate and amitriptyline. Follow-up 30 months after surgery confirmed that the dog was free of clinical signs. Follicular cystitis has not been previously reported in dogs but should be considered as a differential for patients with refractory long-standing lower urinary tract disease."

RETURN TO TOP

growth plate (physeal) fractures:

Physeal fractures in immature cats and dogs: part 1 – forelimbs. Lee Meakin, Sorrel Langley-Hobbs. Vet. Times. February 2016. Quote: "Fractures in animals less than one year of age are frequently observed by vets and reported to comprise 50% of all fractures in dogs and cats. A total of 30% of these fractures are reported to affect the growth plate, or physis. Salter-Harris ClassificationThis high incidence of physeal fractures is observed because the physis is composed predominantly of cartilage, rendering it mechanically weaker than adjacent areas of ossified bone. The anabolic state of the juvenile skeleton means the repair process is rapid. However, damage to the physis – from the original injury or through trauma during surgery or the placement of transphyseal orthopaedic implants – can cause premature fusion of the physis. While compensatory growth may occur at the remaining open physes in the limb, premature closure of one side of the physis or complete closure of a physis where paired bones exist (for example, radius and ulna) can lead to the development of an angular limb deformity. ... Salter-Harris classification (above left): The Salter-Harris classification system for physeal fractures is in common use and was devised by Robert Salter and Robert Harris in 1963. It was originally designed to prognosticate about outcomes following fracture repair, with Salter and Harris reporting the outcomes following experimentally induced physeal fractures of each type. However, it has now been shown the prognosis after experimental injury may not be applicable to clinical cases. A study of 13 physeal fractures showed the histological appearance of the physis in the injured animal correlated more closely with the clinical findings of growth retardation than the fracture configuration previously suggested by Salter and Harris. Nevertheless, the Salter-Harris [S-H] classification system is still in use today as a standard system of nomenclature to describe physeal fractures. ... CKCS with humerus physeal fractureHumerus fractures: The humeral head and greater tubercle have separate centres of ossification, meaning they can fracture off alone or both can separate off and remain attached together [See, photo at right is of 12-month old cavalier King Charles spaniel with S-H type one fracture of humerus] or separate completely, leading to a three-piece fracture. The fractures of the proximal humerus are usually Salter-Harris type one, although an additional section of metaphyseal bone can remain attached to the humeral head, converting it to a Salter-Harris type two. When the greater tubercle is fractured (with or without the humeral head attached), fixation is usually by two parallel K-wires so the articular surface of the humeral head is not traumatised [see photo at far right].  An alternative in animals where the physis is close to fusing is a lag screw, but this will prevent any remaining growth potential across this physis. Fractures of the humeral head alone are generally stabilised with two parallel K-wires inserted from the cranial aspect of the proximal humerus, just distal to the greater tubercle, so the tips of the wires reside in the humeral head. The fractures of the proximal humerus are usually Salter-Harris type one, although an additional section of metaphyseal bone can remain attached to the humeral head, converting it to a Salter-Harris type two." Radiograph photos above are of the humerus of a 12-month-old cavalier King Charles spaniel with a Salter-Harris type one fracture of the proximal humeral physis (left). This has been stabilised with parallel K-wires through the greater tubercle into the humeral diaphysis (right).

RETURN TO TOP

heartworm --  Angiostrongylus vasorum:

Angiostrongylus vasorum in the anterior chamber of a dog's eye. M. C. A. King, R. M. R. Grose, G. Startup. J. Small Anim. Prac. June 1994;35:326–8. Quote: "An unusual case of Angiostrongylus vasorum infestation occurred in a three-year-old female cavalier King Charles spaniel. The dog presented with signs consistent with right otitis interna, followed by the appearance of a free-swimming nematode in the anterior chamber of the right eye. The dog died of acute heart failure before surgical removal of the parasite was possible. Post mortem examination confirmed the presence of large numbers of worms in the pulmonary artery and right ventricle. These worms were identified histologically as A vasorum." Age, sex and breed: 3-year-old female Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. Location: UK. Clinical presentation: Otitis interna, head tilt, submaxillary lymph node enlargement. Presence of a motile worm in the anterior chamber of the eye on a one-day follow up visit. The dog died from a sudden attack of acute respiratory distress. Diagnosis: Numerous A. vasorum adults in the right ventricle and pulmonary artery and one adult in the anterior chamber detected at post-mortem examination.

Clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of three dogs with angiostrongylosis in Ireland. Sheila F. Brennan1, Grainne McCarthy, Hester McAllister, Hugh Bassett, Boyd R. Jones. Irish Vet. J. February 2004;57(2):103-109. Quote: "Infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum was diagnosed at necropsy on a dog [20-month-old male Cavalier King Charles spaniel] that died from acute pulmonary haemorrhage, and on recovery of L1 larvae by Baermann examination of faeces from two dogs, one of which had abdominal pain and retroperitoneal haemorrhage, while the other had right-sided heart failure due to corpulmonale. The presenting signs included syncope (one dog), exercise intolerance (two dogs), cough (two dogs), abdominal pain (one dog) and depression (one dog). Onestage prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged in two dogs, buccal mucosal bleeding time was prolonged in one dog and globulin was elevated in all three dogs. Two dogs were treated with fenbendazole and recovered."

Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in 23 dogs (1999–2002). P. S. Chapman,, A. K. Boag, J. Guitian, A. Boswood. J. Small Anim. Prac. September 2004;45(9):435-440. Quote: "Angiostrongylosis was diagnosed in 23 dogs presenting Queen Mother Hospital for Animals between June 1999 and 2002. The animals' clinical records were reviewed retrospectively and certain risk factors were compared with a control population of 3407 dogs. Twenty-two of the 23 dogs were from south-England and dogs from Surrey (n=8) were significantly overrepresented. There were also significantly more Cavalier Charles spaniels (n=5) and Staffordshire bull terriers (n=the affected dogs than in the control group. The median affected dogs was 10 months (range five to 90 months). common presenting signs were cough (65 per cent), dyspnoea (43 per cent), haemorrhagic diathesis (35 per cent) and (26 per cent). Four dogs were thrombocytopenic and eight significant prolongations in prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time. Thoracic radiographs were abnormal 18 of 19 dogs. A variety of changes were observed, the most being a patchy alveolar-interstitial pattern affecting the dorsocaudal lung fields. Angiostrongylus vasorum larvae were found in 10 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens and 19 of 19 faecal Three dogs died shortly after admission to the hospital. The remainder were successfully treated with fenbendazole at of 50 mg/kg for five to 21 days. A vasorum should now be considered endemic to south-east England."

Angiostrongylus vasorum at a pre-adult phase in the anterior chamber of a young dog’s eye. D. Payne. Munich: International Veterinary Ophthalmology Meeting. 2004;pg.125. Age and breed: 8-month-old Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. Location: France. Clinical presentation: Cough, uveitis, and presence of a motile worm in the anterior chamber of the eye. Diagnosis: Faecal and broncho-alveolar washing examination negative for A. vasorum larvae. One immature A. vasorum female extracted from the eye. Anthelmintic treatment: Fenbendazole-based treatment for 2 weeks.

Canine Angiostrongylus vasorum. I. Moeremans, D. Binst, E. Claerebout, I. Van de Maele, S. Daminet. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 2011;80:319-326. Quote: "The French heartworm Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that lives in the pulmonary vessels and the heart of canids. Transmission occurs through ingestion of infected intermediate hosts, such as snails and slugs. There are increasing reports of autochthonous infections in our neighbouring countries. ... In the Danish survey, no breed predisposition was reported, although others have found a higher occurrence in Cavalier King Charles spaniels, Staffordshire Bull terriers and beagles. The last author attributed this fact to the use of this breed as a hunting dog. Dogs used for hunting seem to be more at risk because of their exposure to infection from the fox-snail life cycle during training. ... Clinical signs usually relate to the respiratory system, coagulopathy and the neurologic system. Anorexia, gastrointestinal dysfunction and weight loss are also frequently observed. Diagnosis is not straightforward, but abnormalities detected by thoracic radiography, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scan can be helpful. Eosinophilia, regenerative anemia and thrombocytopenia with or without abnormalities in the coagulation profile can occur. Definitive diagnosis is made by demonstrating the parasite in the cerebrospinal fluid, in faeces (Baermann technique) and/or in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment consists of anthelmintic drugs and supportive care if necessary."

Recent advances in the epidemiology, clinical and diagnostic features, and control of canine cardio-pulmonary angiostrongylosis. Elsheikha H.M., Holmes S.A., Wright I., Morgan E.R., Lacher D.W. Veterinary Research. 2014;45:1-12. Quote: "The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive update on the biology, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of canine cardio-pulmonary angiostrongylosis. This cardiopulmonary disease is caused by infection by the metastrongyloid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum. The parasite has an indirect life cycle that involves at least two different hosts, gastropod molluscs (intermediate host) and canids (definitive host). A. vasorum represents a common and serious problem for dogs in areas of endemicity, and because of the expansion of its geographical boundaries to many areas where it was absent or uncommon; its global burden is escalating. ... Published data in the United Kingdom suggest that some purebred dogs are at higher risk than crossbreeds, and in particular Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Staffordshire Bull Terriers and beagles. ... A. vasorum infection in dogs can result in serious disorders with potentially fatal consequences. Diagnosis in the live patient depends on faecal analysis, PCR or blood testing for parasite antigens or anti-parasite antibodies. Identification of parasites in fluids and tissues is rarely possible except post mortem, while diagnostic imaging and clinical examinations do not lead to a definitive diagnosis. Treatment normally requires the administration of anthelmintic drugs, and sometimes supportive therapy for complications resulting from infection."

Spatial, demographic and clinical patterns of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in the dog population of southern England. T. R. W. Blehaut, J. L. Hardstaff, P. S. Chapman, D. U. Pfeiffer, A. K. Boag, F. J. Guitian. Vet. Rec. June 2014. Quote: "A retrospective study was carried out to provide updated knowledge of the spatial pattern of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in Southern England and to investigate associations between selected host characteristics (age, breed, sex), risk of infection and clinical presentation (cardiorespiratory signs v haemorrhagic diathesis). One hundred and fortyone cases diagnosed between April 1999 and July 2012 were compared with a control population of dogs referred to the same hospital. A significant association was found between haemorrhagic diathesis and breed but not for other host characteristics and clinical presentations. Younger dogs and certain breeds of dog (Jack Russell terriers, Cocker Spaniels, Springer Spaniels, Cavalier King Charles spaniels and Staffordshire Bull Terriers) had significantly higher odds of angiostrongylosis than other breeds in the study. A significant cluster of cases was found in Southern England. Animals presenting with cardiorespiratory signs or haemorrhagic diathesis in Southern England, especially if they are young or of a breed associated with angiostrongylosis, should be given special consideration with regards to possible A. vasorum infestation. Our results should be interpreted bearing in mind that they are based on the retrospective exploration of dogs seen at a referral centre."

Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in dogs: continuining spread and developments in diagnosis and treatment. Morgan E., Shaw S. December 2010. J. Small Animal Practice. 2010;51:616-621. Quote: "Disease caused by Angiostrongylus vasorum is increasingly diagnosed in dogs, as the geographic range of the parasite increases along with awareness among clinicians. ... There are limited data on risk factors for infection, but these appear to include age (younger dogs more likely to be infected), recent worming history and breed (Staffordshire bull terriers and cavalier King Charles spaniels marginally over-represented). ... Diagnosis, treatment and prevention are not always straightforward, although recent developments offer hope for improved options in future. Understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis remains poor. This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of this parasitic disease, focussing on the most recent developments and advances."

Autochthonous Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a Border collie in Belgium. C. Sarre, A. Willems, S. Daminet, E. Claerebout. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift. 2015;84. Quote: "Purebreds could be at higher risk [of Auto-chthonous Angiostrongylus vasorum infection], with Cavalier King Charles spaniels, Staffordshire bull terriers, Beagles and hunting dog breeds in general as the most frequently infected."

Prevalence, treatment and prevention of A vasorum. Simon Tappin. Vet. Times. July 2015:8-10. Quote: "Angiostrongylus vasorum was first documented in France in 1853. As a result it is often referred to as French heartworm because the adults live in the pulmonary arteries and the right side of the heart. Infection leads to varied clinical signs, with respiratory, coagulopathic and neurological signs most commonly reported. ... Within the cluster in southern England, younger dogs, cocker spaniels, springer spaniels and cavalier King Charles spaniels, Jack Russells and Staffordshire bull terriers were found to be at higher risk of infection within a referral population of cases. ... Cardiorespiratory signs are most commonly seen, with coughing occurring due to the physical presence of the parasite. ... Disease due to infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum has been well documented in small numbers of dogs in south Wales, and both the south-east and south-west of England for some years. Recently, both the incidence and geographical distribution appear to be increasing, with cases now being reported in northern England and Scotland. Most dogs develop signs of cardiorespiratory disease; however, a significant proportion develop signs secondary to coagulopathy. A rapid patient-side blood test with good sensitivity and specificity has become available, greatly improving the ease of diagnosis. Imidacloprid/moxidectin, milbemycin and fenbendazole are all effective treatment options, with imidacloprid/moxidectin and milbemycin also being an effective prophylactic treatment."

Angiostrongylus vasorum in the eye: new case reports and a review of the literature. Vito Colella, Riccardo Paolo Lia, Johana Premont, Paul Gilmore, Mario Cervone, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Nunzio D’Anna, Diana Williams, Domenico Otranto. BioMed Central. March 2016. Quote: "Background: Nematodes of the genus Angiostrongylus are important causes of potentially life-threatening diseases in several animal species and humans. Angiostrongylus vasorum affects the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary arteries in dogs, red foxes and other carnivores. The diagnosis of canine angiostrongylosis may be challenging due to the wide spectrum of clinical signs. Ocular manifestations have been seldom reported but have serious implications for patients. Methods: The clinical history of three cases of infection with A. vasorum in dogs diagnosed in UK, France and Italy, was obtained from clinical records provided by the veterinary surgeons along with information on the diagnostic procedures and treatment. Nematodes collected from the eyes of infected dogs were morphologically identified to the species level and molecularly analysed by the amplification of the nuclear 18S rRNA gene. Results: On admission, the dogs were presented with various degrees of ocular discomfort and hyphema because of the presence of a motile object in the eye. The three patients had ocular surgery during which nematodes were removed and subsequently morphologically and molecularly identified as two adult males and one female of A. vasorum. ... Angiostrongylus vasorum in the eye of CKCSCase 2: A 2-year-old male Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dog was referred to a private veterinary clinic in Paris (France) due to persistent blepharospasm and epiphora. The dog that lived in the city centre was walked in a forest nearby. On clinical ophthalmological examination the dog showed prolapse of the nictitating membrane, photophobia on the left eye, iris hyperaemia and corneal oedema. The intraocular pressure was 14 mmHg in the left eye and 16 mmHg in the right eye, the fluorescein test was negative and the Schirmer test showed a slightly increased lacrymation. A thread-like organism was noticed in the anterior chamber of the left eye (photo at right), which was very motile under light stimuli. ... Removal of the parasite was performed by anterior chamber paracentesis and the nematode was morphologically and molecularly processed. The specimen was identified as an unfertilised A. vasorum female. Briefly, the female nematode measured 16 mm in length and 0.2 mm in width; genital ducts were coiled around the reddish intestine, which appeared visible throughout the cuticle. However, the nematode was damaged and further morphological features were not evaluated, with the exception of the uteri, which lacked first-stage larvae, and the vulva. Therefore, the dog was subjected to coprological examination for the detection of L1 using the Baermann technique. The 18S rDNA sequences obtained from both L1 collected from the faeces and the female nematode displayed 100 % identity to the nucleotide sequence of A. vasorum [GenBank: AJ920365]. The dog lacked any signs of respiratory infection, both previously and during the observation period. The animal was treated with fenbendazol 25 mg/Kg per os SID for 3 weeks associated with prednisolone 0.2 mg/Kg. ... Conclusions: Three new cases of canine ocular angiostrongylosis are reported along with a review of other published clinical cases to improve the diagnosis and provide clinical recommendation for this parasitic condition. In addition, the significance of migratory patterns of larvae inside the host body is discussed. Veterinary healthcare workers should include canine angiostrongylosis in the differential diagnosis of ocular diseases. ... Interestingly, all dogs suffering from canine ocular angiostrongylosis were under the 3 years of age (i.e. 5 months to 3 years), and of the few reports now available in literature, three and in Case 2, involved Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dogs. However, additional epidemiological data are needed for a clear assessment of risk factors (e.g. breed and age) related to the occurrence of canine ocular angiostrongylosis."

Hyperfibrinolysis and Hypofibrinogenemia Diagnosed With Rotational Thromboelastometry in Dogs Naturally Infected With Angiostrongylus vasorum. N.E. Sigrist, N. Hofer-Inteeworn, R. Jud Schefer, C. Kuemmerle-Fraune, M. Schnyder, A.P.N. Kutter. J. Vet. Intern. Med. May 2017. Quote: Background: The pathomechanism of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection-associated bleeding diathesis in dogs is not fully understood. Objective: To describe rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters in dogs naturally infected with A. vasorum and to compare ROTEM parameters between infected dogs with and without clinical signs of bleeding. Animals: A total of 21 dogs presented between 2013 and 2016. ... 3 dogs were Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (3/21, 14.3%), 2 were Chihuahuas (2/21, 9.5%), and the remaining 16 dogs represented different breeds. ... Methods: Dogs with A. vasorum infection and ROTEM evaluation were retrospectively identified. Thrombocyte counts, ROTEM parameters, clinical signs of bleeding, therapy, and survival to discharge were retrospectively retrieved from patient records and compared between dogs with and without clinical signs of bleeding. Results: Evaluation by ROTEM showed hyperfibrinolysis in 8 of 12 (67%; 95% CI, 40–86%) dogs with and 1 of 9 (11%; 95% CI, 2–44%) dogs without clinical signs of bleeding (P = .016). Hyperfibrinolysis was associated with severe hypofibrinogenemia in 6 of 10 (60%; 95% CI, 31–83%) of the cases. Hyperfibrinolysis decreased or resolved after treatment with 10–80 mg/kg tranexamic acid. Fresh frozen plasma (range, 14–60 mL/kg) normalized follow-up fibrinogen function ROTEM (FIBTEM) maximal clot firmness in 6 of 8 dogs (75%; 95% CI, 41–93%). Survival to discharge was 67% (14/21 dogs; 95% CI, 46–83%) and was not different between dogs with and without clinical signs of bleeding (P = .379). Conclusion and Clinical Importance: Hyperfibrinolysis and hypofibrinogenemia were identified as an important pathomechanism in angiostrongylosis-associated bleeding in dogs. Hyperfibrinolysis and hypofibrinogenemia were normalized by treatment with tranexamic acid and plasma transfusions, respectively.

Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in dogs from a cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis endemic area of Northwestern Italy: a case study and a retrospective data analysis. Olivieri E, Zanzani SA, Gazzonis AL, Giudice C, Brambilla P, Alberti I, Romussi S, Lombardo R, Mortellaro CM, Banco B, Vanzulli FM, Veronesi F, Manfredi MT. BMC Vet. Res. June 2017;12:165. Quote: Background: In Italy, Angiostrongylus vasorum, an emergent parasite, is being diagnosed in dogs from areas considered free of infection so far. As clinical signs are multiple and common to other diseases, its diagnosis can be challenging. In particular, in areas where angiostrongylosis and dirofilariosis overlap, a misleading diagnosis of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis might occur even on the basis of possible misleading outcomes from diagnostic kits. Case Presentation: Two Cavalier King Charles spaniel dogs from an Italian breeding in the Northwest were referred to a private veterinary hospital with respiratory signs. A cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis was diagnosed and the dogs treated with ivermectin, but one of them died. At necropsy, pulmonary oedema, enlargement of tracheo-bronchial lymphnodes and of cardiac right side were detected. Within the right ventricle lumen, adults of A. vasorum were found. All dogs from the same kennel were subjected to faecal examination by FLOTAC and Baermann's techniques to detect A. vasorum first stage larvae; blood analysis by Knott's for Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae, and antigenic tests for both A. vasorum (Angio Detect™) and D.immitis (DiroCHEK® Heartworm, Witness®Dirofilaria). The surviving dog with respiratory signs resulted positive for A. vasorum both at serum antigens and larval detection. Its Witness® test was low positive similarly to other four dogs from the same kennel, but false positive results due to cross reactions with A. vasorum were also considered. No dogs were found infected by A. vasorum. Eventually, the investigation was deepened by browsing the pathological database of Veterinary Pathology Laboratories at Veterinary School of Milan University through 1998-2016, where 11 cases of angiostrongylosis were described. Two out of 11 dogs had a mixed infection with Crenosoma vulpis. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the need for accurate surveys to acquire proper epidemiological data on A. vasorum infection in Northwestern Italy and for appropriate diagnostic methods. Veterinary clinicians should be warned about the occurrence of this canine parasite and the connected risk of a misleading diagnosis, particularly in areas endemic for cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis.

RETURN TO TOP

hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE):

Prevalence of disorders recorded in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. Jennifer F Summers, Dan G O’Neill, David B Church, Peter C Thomson, Paul D McGreevy, David C Brodbelt. Canine Genetics & Epidemiology. April 2015;2:4. Quote: "Background: Concerns have been raised over breed-related health issues in purebred dogs, but reliable prevalence estimates for disorders within specific breeds are sparse. Electronically stored patient health records from primary-care practice are emerging as a useful source of epidemiological data in companion animals. This study used large volumes of health data from UK primary-care practices participating in the VetCompass animal health surveillance project to evaluate in detail the disorders diagnosed in a random selection of over 50% of dogs recorded as Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs). Confirmation of breed using available microchip and Kennel Club (KC) registration data was attempted. Results: In total, 3624 dogs were recorded as CKCSs within the VetCompass database of which 143 (3.9%) were confirmed as KC-registered via microchip identification linkage of VetCompass to the KC database. 1875 dogs (75 KC registered and 1800 of unknown KC status, 52% of both groups) were randomly sampled for detailed clinical review. Clinical data associated with veterinary care were recorded in 1749 (93.3%) of these dogs. The most common specific disorders recorded during the study period were heart murmur (541 dogs, representing 30.9% of study group), diarrhoea of unspecified cause (193 dogs, 11.0%), dental disease (166 dogs, 9.5%), otitis externa (161, 9.2%), conjunctivitis (131, 7.4%) and anal sac infection (129, 7.4%). The five most common disorder categories were cardiac (affecting 31.7% of dogs), dermatological (22.2%), ocular (20.6%), gastrointestinal (19.3%) and dental/periodontal disorders (15.2%). Discussion and conclusions: Study findings suggest that many of the disorders commonly affecting CKCSs are largely similar to those affecting the general dog population presented for primary veterinary care in the UK. However, cardiac disease (and MVD in particular) continues to be of particular concern in this breed. Further work: This work highlights the value of veterinary practice based breed-specific epidemiological studies to provide targeted and evidence-based health policies. Further studies using electronic patient records in other breeds could highlight their potential disease predispositions."

Nuclear Glycogen Inclusions in Canine Parietal Cells. S. Silvestri, E. Lepri, C. Dall’Aglio, M. C. Marchesi, G. Vitellozzi. Vet. Pathology. January 2017. Quote: Nuclear glycogen inclusions occur infrequently in pathologic conditions but also in normal human and animal tissues. Their function or significance is unclear. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no reports of nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells exist. After initial observations of nuclear inclusions / pseudoinclusions during routine histopathology, the authors retrospectively examined samples of gastric mucosa from dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs for the presence of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions and determined their composition using histologic and electron-microscopic methods. ... The main represented breeds with nuclear inclusions in our sample population were mixed-breed dogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. ... In 24 of 108 cases (22%), the authors observed various numbers of intranuclear inclusions / pseudoinclusions within scattered parietal cells. ... the main represented breeds were mixed-breed dogs (26%, 5/19), followed by Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (11%, 2/19). ... Nuclei were characterized by marked karyomegaly and chromatin margination around a central optically empty or slightly eosinophilic area. The intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions stained positive with periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) and were diastase sensitive, consistent with glycogen. Several PAS-positive/diastase-sensitive sections were further examined by transmission electron microscopy, also using periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) staining to identify polysaccharides. Ultrastructurally, the nuclear inclusions were composed of electron-dense particles that were not membrane bound, without evidence of nuclear membrane invaginations or cytoplasmic organelles in the nuclei, and positive staining with PA-TCH-SP, confirming a glycogen composition. No cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were observed, suggesting that the intranuclear glycogen inclusions were probably synthesized in loco. Nuclear glycogen inclusions were not associated with gastritis or colonization by Helicobacter-like organisms (P > .05). Our findings suggest that nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells could be an incidental finding. Nevertheless, since nuclear glycogen is present in several pathologic conditions, further investigations could be warranted to determine their true significance.

RETURN TO TOP

hepatitis, chronic:

A Retrospective Histopathological Survey on Canine and Feline Liver Diseases at the University of Tokyo between 2006 and 2012. Naoki Hirose, Kazuyuki Uchida, Hideyuki Kanemoto, Koichi Ohno, James K. Chambers, Hiroyuki Nakayama. J. Vet. Med. Sci. July 2014;76(7): 1015–1020. Quote: "To determine the incidence of hepatic diseases in dogs and cats in Japan, a retrospective study was performed using data of 463 canine and 71 feline liver biopsies at the Veterinary Medical Center of the University of Tokyo. The most common canine hepatic disease was microvascular dysplasia (MVD) and occupied 29.4% of all diagnoses. This terminology might contain “real” MVD and primary portal vein hypoplasia, because these two conditions were difficult to be clearly distinguished histopathologically. Parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis and primary hepatic tumors accounted for 23.5% and 21.0% of the diagnoses, respectively. Parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis occupied 34.1% of non-proliferative canine hepatic diseases, while hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma were 26.6% and 24.5% of roliferative hepatic diseases, respectively. Breed-specificity was seen in MVD for Yorkshire terrier, Papillon and Toy poodle, in hepatitis for Doberman pinscher and Labrador retriever, in cholangiohepatitis for American cocker spaniel, Miniature schnauzer and Pomeranian, in hepatocellular adenoma for Golden retriever and Shiba and in hepatocellular carcinoma for Shih Tzu. Among 25 cases of canine chronic hepatitis, Labrador retrievers and Doberman Pinschers ranked the first (8 cases, 32.0%) and the second (3 cases, 12.0%), respectively. Females were more susceptible than males in both breeds [Labrador retrievers (male/female=1:7) and Doberman pinschers (male/female=1:2)]. The median age of the hepatitis cases was 8 years and 7 months old. Eight of the 25 canine chronic hepatitis cases had copper deposition. Two of the 8 cases were Doberman pinschers, and 1 was Labrador retriever, Bedlington terrier, Welsh corgi, Cavalier King Charles spaniel or a mixed breed."

Prevalence of pancreatic, hepatic and renal microscopic lesions in post-mortem samples from Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. Kent, Andrew C. C.; Constantino-Casas, Fernando; Rusbridge, Clare; Corcoran, Brendan; Carter, Margaret; Ledger, Tania; Watson, Penny J. J. Small Animal Practice, January 2016. Quote: "Objectives: To describe the prevalence of pancreatic, hepatic and renal microscopic lesions in post-mortem samples from Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) presented to a UK post-mortem collection scheme. Methods: Histopathology was performed on the organs of interest and the prevalence of microscopic lesions described, this was related back to the clinical signs shown ante-mortem. Results: Evidence of chronic pancreatitis was seen in 51.9% of the cases, and age correlated with severity of disease, suggesting that chronic pancreatitis is a progressive condition. Evidence of renal lesions was present in 52.2% of cases, most commonly inflammatory disease. The rate of ante-mortem diagnosis was low for both pancreatic and renal disease, at 25% and 16.7% respectively. Primary hepatic lesions were present in only 11.1% of cases, but secondary hepatic lesions were more common and were present in 64.8%. Clinical Significance: Pancreatic and renal lesions are common in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and clinicians should be aware of this when presented with clinical cases, they have similar rates of hepatic disease as the general population."

RETURN TO TOP

hypersialism:

Phenobarbitone-responsive hypersialism in two dogs. B. L. Chapman, R. Malik. J. Small Animal Pract. November 1992;33(11):549-552. Quote: "Two dogs were examined for hypersialism associated with non-painful, symmetrical enlargement of both mandibular salivary glands. These signs were accompanied by inappetence and weight loss. ... This paper describes hypersialism associated with mandibular salivary gland enlargement in two female cavalier King Charles spaniels which resolved completely with phenobarbitone dosing. Case 1: An eight-year-old spayed cavalier King Charles spaniel was presented with hypersialism, teeth grinding, gagging and snorting of five weeks' duration. The bitch had lost a substantial amount of weight as a consequencs of unrelenting inappetence and was thin and debilitated. Also, she had suddenly become deaf six months earlier. ... Case 2: A four-year-old spayed female cavalier King Charles spaniel was referred because of hypersial-ism of four months' duration. The case developed suddenly ... The underlying cause of the problem could not be determined despite extensive investigations including fine needle aspiration biopsy of affected salivary glands. Hypersialism and mandibular salivary gland enlargement resolved completely during pheno-barbitone administration."

RETURN TO TOP

icterus -- zinc poisoning:

Icterus & Collapse in a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. Leslie Sharkey. Clinicians Brief. July 2010. Quote: "A 7-year-old neutered male Cavalier King Charles spaniel is presented after an episode of collapse. The dog was presented to the referring veterinarian after an episode of collapse and weakness at a boarding kennel. The patient had been eating and drinking normally before the collapse episode but had been lethargic. The referring veterinarian noted evidence of hemolytic anemia, which was suspected to be immune-mediated. The dog was referred after initial treatment with vitamin K, gastroprotectants, and IV fluids. An untreated heart murmur was noted on the history. Physical Examination: On presentation to the referral hospital, the patient had icteric sclera and mucous membranes, a grade 3/6 systolic heart murmur, discomfort on abdominal palpation, nystagmus, and decreased pupillary light responses and mentation. Laboratory Results: A complete blood count revealed marked neutrophilic leukocytosis with a moderate regenerative left shift, including rare metamyelocytes, toxic change, and monocytosis. Other laboratory findings included a hematocrit of 9%, mild macrocytosis, normal mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, increased nucleated red blood cells, and normal platelet count. A review of the blood film revealed 50% to 75% Heinz bodies, numerous spherocytes, and red blood cell ghosts. Diagnosis: probable zinc toxicity. Abdominal radiography revealed metallic foreign bodies in the stomach.Multiple coins, including some zinc containing pennies minted after 1982, and a medallion were removed endoscopically."

RETURN TO TOP

inflammatory bowel disease (IBD):

Eosinophilic diseases in two Cavalier King Charles spaniels. A. J. German, D. J. Holden, E. J. Hall, M. J. Day. J Small Anim Pract. December 2002;43(12):533-8. Quote: This report describes the clinical presentation of two Cavalier King Charles spaniels with different eosinophilic diseases. ... Case 2: A 17-month-old Cavalier King Charles spaniel was referred to the University of Bristol, Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, with a four-month history of intermittent haemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhoea. ... The two Cavalier King Charles spaniels reported here had eosinophilic stomatitis and circulating eosinophilia, concurrent with eosinophilic disease in one other body system. Marked peripheral eosinophilia is most commonly associated with inflammatory or hypersensitivity disorders of organs with large epithelial surfaces, such as the gastrointestinal tract, lungs and skin. ... EE is an uncommon form of canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterised by a diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the lamina propria. Dogs of five years and under are most commonly affected; there is no sex predisposition, and German shepherd dogs and rottweilers are predisposed. Therefore, again there is no reported breed predisposition in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel. Clinical signs are similar to other forms of IBD, but gastrointestinal ulceration and blood loss is more common, as in the current case, which would explain the borderline anaemia. ... For EE, hypersensitivity could develop secondarily to dietary antigens and, while there was some response to an antigen-limited diet in case 2, this was incomplete. Never-theless, dietary sensitivity may not always resolve with dietary modification alone, and glucocorticoid therapy is often required. ... Conclusions: The current case reports are the first description of an association between eosinophilic stomatitis and eosinophilic disease conditions elsewhere in the body. From a clinical perspective, the oral cavity lesions responded in parallel to treatment of the underlying condition, but whether treatment would be required if disease were localised to the oral cavity is not clear. Further work is required to examine the aetiopathogenesis of eosinophilic diseases in Cavalier King Charles spaniels.

Molecular-phylogenetic characterization ofmicrobial communities imbalances in the small intestine of dogswith in£ammatory bowel disease. Panagiotis G. Xenoulis, Blake Palculict, Karin Allenspach, Jörg M. Steiner, Angela M. Van House, Jan S. Suchodolski. Microbiology Ecology. December 2008;66(3):579-589. Quote: An association between luminal commensal bacteria and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been suggested in humans, but studies investigating the intestinal microbial communities of dogs with IBD have not been published. The aim of this study was to characterize differences of the small intestinal microbial communities between dogs with IBD [including a cavalier King Charles spaniel] and healthy control dogs. Duodenal brush cytology samples were endoscopically collected from 10 dogs with IBD and nine healthy control dogs. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA gene was amplified using universal bacterial primers. Constructed 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were compared between groups. From a total of 1240 selected clones, 156 unique 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified, belonging to six phyla: Firmicutes (53.4%), Proteobacteria (28.4%), Bacteroidetes (7.0%), Spirochaetes (5.2%), Fusobacteria (3.4%), Actinobacteria (1.1%), and Incertae sedis (1.5%). Species richness was significantly lower in the IBD group (P=0.038). Principal component analysis indicated that the small intestinal microbial communities of IBD and control dogs are composed of distinct microbial communities. The most profound difference involved enrichment of the IBD dogs with members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. However, differences involving members of other families, such as Clostridiaceae, Bacteroidetes and Spirochaetes, were also identified. In conclusion, canine IBD is associated with altered duodenal microbial communities compared with healthy controls.

Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 in duodenal biopsies from dogs with inflammatory bowel disease is associated with severity of disease. L.A. McMahon, A.K. House, B. Catchpole, J. Elson-Riggins, A. Riddle, K. Smith, D. Werling, I.A. Burgener, K. Allenspach. Vet. Immunology & Immunopathology. May 2010;135(1-2):158-163. Quote: There is growing evidence that aberrant innate immune responses towards the bacterial flora of the gut play a role in the pathogenesis of canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Toll-like receptors (TLR) play an important role as primary sensors of invading pathogens and have gained significant attention in human IBD as differential expression and polymorphisms of certain TLR have been shown to occur in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the expression of two TLR important for recognition of commensals in the gut. TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression in duodenal biopsies from dogs with IBD was measured and correlated with clinical and histological disease severity. Endoscopic duodenal biopsies from 20 clinical cases [including three cavalier King Charles spaniels] and 7 healthy control dogs were used to extract mRNA. TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. TLR2 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the IBD dogs compared to controls, whereas TLR4 mRNA expression was similar in IBD and control cases. In addition, TLR2 mRNA expression was mildly correlated with clinical severity of disease, however, there was no correlation between TLR2 expression and histological severity of disease.

Breed-independent toll-like receptor 5 polymorphisms show association with canine inflammatory bowel disease. A. Kathrani, A. House, B. Catchpole, A. Murphy, D. Werling, K. Allenspach. Tissue Antigens. August 2011;78(2):94-101. Quote: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is thought to be the most common cause of vomiting and diarrhoea in dogs. Although IBD can occur in any canine breed, certain breeds are more susceptible. We have previously shown that polymorphisms in the TLR4 and TLR5 (toll-like receptor) genes are significantly associated with IBD in German Shepherd dogs (GSDs). In order to allow for the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics suitable for all dogs suffering from IBD, it would be useful to determine if the described polymorphisms are also significantly associated with IBD in other breeds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the canine TLR4 and TLR5 genes are associated with IBD in other non-GSD canine breeds. The significance of the previously identified non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR4 (T23C, G1039A, A1571T and G1807A) and TLR5 genes (G22A, C100T and T1844C) were evaluated in a case-control study using a SNaPSHOT multiplex reaction. Sequencing information from 85 unrelated dogs with IBD consisting of 38 different breeds [including two cavalier King Charles spaniels] was compared with a breed-matched control group consisting of 162 unrelated dogs [including three cavalier King Charles spaniels]. Indeed, as in the GSD IBD population, the two TLR5 SNPs (C100T and T1844C) were found to be significantly protective for IBD in other breeds (P = 0.023 and P = 0.0195 respectively). Our study suggests that the two TLR5 SNPs, C100T and T1844C could play a role in canine IBD as these were found to be protective factors for this disease in 38 different canine breeds. Thus, targeting TLR5 in the canine system may represent a suitable way to develop new treatment for IBD in dogs.

Gene expression of selected signature cytokines of T cell subsets in duodenal tissues of dogs with and without inflammatory bowel disease. Silke Schmitz, Oliver A. Garden, Dirk Werling, Karin Allenspach. Vet. Immunology & Immuno-pathology. March 2012;146(1):87-91. Quote: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea in dogs. In people, specific cytokine patterns attributed to T cell subsets, especially T helper cell [Th]1, Th17 and regulatory T(reg) cells have emerged in IBD. In contrast, no specific involvement of a distinct T cell subset has been described so far in canine IBD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess gene expression of signature cytokines in duodenal tissues from 18 German shepherd dogs with IBD (group 1), 33 dogs of other breeds [including three cavalier King Charles spaniels] with IBD (group 2) and 15 control dogs (group 3). Relative quantification of IL-17A, IL-22, IL-10, IFNy and TGFβ was performed. Expression of IL-17A was significantly lower in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (p = 0.014), but no difference in the expression of IL-22 (p = 0.839), IFNγ (p = 0.359), IL-10 (p = 0.085) or TGFβ (p = 0.551) across groups was detected. Thus, no clear evidence for the involvement of Th-17 signature cytokines in canine IBD at the mRNA level could be shown. The contribution of specific T cell subsets to the pathogenesis of canine IBD warrants further investigation.

Decreased Immunoglobulin A Concentrations in Feces, Duodenum, and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Dogs with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J. Vet. Inter. Med. January 2013;27(1):47-55. Quote: Background: Although immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a key role in regulating gut homeostasis, its role in canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown. Hypothesis: IgA expression may be altered in dogs with IBD, unlike that observed in healthy dogs and dogs with other gastrointestinal diseases. Animals: Thirty-seven dogs with IBD {including three cavalier King Charles spaniels], 10 dogs with intestinal lymphoma, and 20 healthy dogs. Methods: Prospective study. IgA and IgG concentrations in serum, feces, and duodenal samples were measured by ELISA. IgA+ cells in duodenal lamina propria and IgA+ CD21+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were examined by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively. Duodenal expression of the IgA-inducing cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), B cell activating factor (BAFF), and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Results: Compared to healthy dogs, dogs with IBD had significantly decreased concentrations of IgA in fecal and duodenal samples. The number of IgA+ CD21+ PBMCs and IgA+ cells in duodenal lamina propria was significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs or dogs with intestinal lymphoma. Duodenal BAFF and APRIL mRNA expression was significantly higher in IBD dogs than in the healthy controls. Duodenal TGF-β mRNA expression was significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs and dogs with intestinal lymphoma. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: IBD dogs have decreased IgA concentrations in feces and duodenum and fewer IgA+ PBMCs, which might contribute to development of chronic enteritis in dogs with IBD.

RETURN TO TOP

insecticide poisoning reaction -- pyrethrins:

Tremor-Salivation Syndrome in Canine following Pyrethroid/Permethrin Intoxication. Sigal Klainbart, Yael Merbl, Efrat Kelmer, Olga Cuneah, Nir Edery, Jakob A Shimshon. Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta. September 2014;5:9. Quote: "A 17-month-old male King Charles cavalier was presented with acute onset of generalized body tremors, facial twitching and salivation after being exposed to 2 different classes of compounds of the pyrethrins/pyrethroids group as well as to imidacloprid. ... Biospotix spray (geraniol essential oils) and Advantage spot on (100 mg/mL imidaclopride and 25 mg/mL moxidectin) were applied on the dog’s skin. Furthermore, the owner’s household was sprayed against insects using a commercial pyrethroid preparation (Admiral) 24 hours before clinical signs appeared. The dog was otherwise healthy, fully vaccinated, lived in an apartment and leashwalked. ... Bifenthrin toxicity was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Pyrethroid toxicosis in dogs is to the best of our knowledge rarely reported in the literature. The dog displayed neurological signs highly characteristic of Tremor-Salivation-syndrome associated with pyrethroid toxicosis. The plasma half-life of bifenthrin in dogs was 7.6 hr). Initial therapy consisted of diazepam, methocarbamol and IV fluids, followed by general anesthesia with isofluran and diazepam CRI. Supportive nursing care was provided as needed. Twenty-four hours post admission, the dogs was no longer under general anesthesia. Seventy two hours post admission the dog was discharged had no menace response, was alert and responsive when stimulated, ataxic while walking and showed normal eating behavior." See also, Bifenthrin Toxicity in a Dog. Klainbart S, Merbl Y, Kelmer E, Cuneah O, Shimshoni JA. Annals of Clinical Pathology. November 2014;2(4):1030.

RETURN TO TOP

myoclonus:

Neurological diseases of the Cavalier King Charles spaniel.  Rusbridge, C. J.  Small Anim. Prac., June 2005, 46(6): 265-272. Quote: "Head nodding Occasionally CKCS may present with the complaint of head nodding. Face twitching may also be seen and the body may be observed to bounce up and down when the dog is standing stationary. Occasionally the dog may stagger or appear to lose balance. Episodes tend to last a few seconds and may be very frequent. This movement disorder can have a variety of causes and underlying CNS pathology such as GME and syringomyelia should be ruled out and treated. It is more common in geriatric CKCS. The episodes stop during sleep and when walking. Investigation into the exact aetiology is ongoing."

International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force’s current understanding of idiopathic epilepsy of genetic or suspected genetic origin in purebred dogs. Velia-Isabel Hülsmeyer, Andrea Fischer, Paul J.J. Mandigers, Luisa DeRisio, Mette Berendt, Clare Rusbridge, Sofie F.M. Bhatti, Akos Pakozdy, Edward E. Patterson, Simon Platt, Rowena M.A. Packer, Holger A. Volk. BMC Vet. Res. September 2015;11:175. Quote: "Older Cavalier King Charles spaniels (>5 years old) have a high prevalence of myoclonus [spasmodic jerky contraction of groups of muscles], which manifests most commonly as a brief jerking of the head and forelimbs when the dog is standing or sitting. Initially the syndrome is relatively benign but can be progressive with affected dogs suffering frequent jerks which may interfere with function, for example cause the dog to fall or stumble. The syndrome can be confused with focal epileptic seizures but generally does not respond to AEDs [antiepileptic drugs] licenced for dogs although may respond to levetiracetam (personal communication Clare Rusbridge February 2015). The pathogenesis of the myoclonus is as yet undetermined."

RETURN TO TOP

periodontal disease:

A case–control study between interleukin-10 gene variants and periodontal disease in dogs. Carlos Albuquerque, Francisco Morinha, João Requicha, Isabel Dias, Henrique Guedes-Pinto, Carlos Viegas, Estela Bastos. Gene. April 2014;539(1):75-81. Quote: "Periodontal disease (PD) refers to a group of inflammatory diseases caused by bacterial plaque in the periodontium and ranges from an early stage (gingivitis) to an advanced stage (periodontitis). It is a multifactorial disease that results from the interaction of the host defence mechanisms with the plaque microorganisms. PD has an enormous impact on human medicine and veterinary medicine due to its high prevalence as well as its local and systemic implications. Dog model has been extensively used in oral disease research, contributing significantly to the current understanding of periodontology. The most important clinical aspects of canine PD were considered in this work and the various animal models were examined with emphasis on the role of the dog as the most useful model for understanding human PD and to develop new therapeutic and preventive measures. In recent decades, it has been consolidated the idea of the genetics influence in PD by controlling the inflammatory process severity and the therapy responses. Various single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified as risk factors, mainly in genes responsible for molecules involved in immunoregulation and/or metabolism, but many questions still remain. In canine PD, this is a completely unexplored issue but a highly relevant and promising research field namely because the strong similarity between canine and human disease provides the possibility to share the knowledge attained from one species to another, with mutual benefits. Following a comparative genomics approach to identify the most promising candidate genes, the main goal of this work was to contribute for a better characterization of canine PD, particularly in terms of genetic basis. Five candidate genes (IL1A, IL1B, IL10, IL6 and LTF) encoding molecules with recognized relevant role in the PD pathogenesis (interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-10, interleukin-6 and lactotransferrin, respectively) were selected and case-control studies were delineated, in which a molecular analysis of each gene was performed to identify genetic variations and to evaluate its possible association with PD. It was hypothesized that in canine PD, similar to human PD, a disfunction or a dysregulated production of these molecules resulting from genetic variations can be part of the explanation for the differences in disease susceptibility between individuals. A total of twenty-six genetic variations were identified and analyzed, eight in the IL1A and IL1B genes, seven in the IL10 gene, three in the IL6 gene, and eight in the LTF gene. The IL1A/1_g.388A>C and IL1A/1_g.521T>A variations showed statistically significant differences between groups [adjusted OR (95%CI): 0.15 (0.03-0.76), p=0.022; 5.76 (1.03-32.1), p=0.046, respectively], meaning that, in the studied population, the IL1A/1_g.388C allele is associated with a decreased PD risk, whereas the IL1A/1_g.521A allele is associated with an increased risk. Regarding all the others variations, no statistically significant differences were detected, but the IL1A/2_g.515G>T, IL10/2_g.285G>A, IL6/2_g.105G>A, LTF/3_g.411C>T, LTF/3_g.420G>A and LTF/3_g.482G>A variations resulted in a change of encoded amino acid, which may alter protein structure and function, as demonstrated by different bioinformatics tools. Before the molecular analysis of the IL10 gene, two additional studies were delineated. Considering that no clear consensus has been reached about the association of IL10 polymorphisms and human PD, a meta-analysis of all available studies was performed. It was found statistically significant association of IL10-819(-824)C>T and IL10-592(-597)C>A polymorphisms, with IL10-819(-824)T and -592(-597)A alleles conferring a relative increased risk for chronic periodontits in Caucasians. Additionally, a study to evaluate the levels of interleukin-10 in plasma of dogs with periodontitis was delineated assessing a possible correlation between these levels and periodontal condition, being found lower levels in the periodontitis group comparing with the control group. The outcome from this work suggests that dog IL1A, IL1B, IL10, IL6 and LTF genes, as occurs in the human orthologous genes, are highly polymorphic with genetic variants that may be important in PD susceptibility. ... Short et al. (2007) developed an analysis of candidate susceptibility genes in canine diabetes, including IL10 gene, selected taking in account the previous associations described in human diabetes. These authors found various polymorphisms in dog IL10 gene associated with diabetes mellitus in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. ... The results obtained for the IL1A are particularly relevant, but this is the first work in this issue and further studies are essential to reinforce these findings and to clarify its biological importance; as well as other studies with different candidate genes. But, it is undeniable that advances in this area are fundamental to understand properly the complex causal pathways of PD and to improve the clinical management of PD, particularly with the development of novel strategies of risk assessment. A candidate gene approach supported in comparative genomics tools is a promising path of research to achieve these objectives, which may lead to great benefits in human and veterinary periodontology, adding important knowledge to design new preventive and therapeutic strategies, and ultimately to improve health in both humans and dogs.

RETURN TO TOP

piebaldism -- axial depigmentation:

Axial depigmentation in CKCSAnalogs of human genetic skin disease in domesticated animals. Justin Finch, Stephanie Abrams, Amy Finch. Int'l J. Women's Derm. March 2017. Quote: Genetic skin diseases encompass a vast, complex, and ever expanding field. Recognition of the features of these diseases is important to ascertain a correct diagnosis, initiate treatment, consider genetic counseling, and refer patients to specialists when the disease may impact other areas. Because genodermatoses may presentwith a vast array of features, it can be bewildering to memorize them. This manuscript will explain and depict some genetic skin diseases that occur in both humans and domestic animals and offer a connection and memorization aid for physicians. In addition,we will explore howanimal diseases serve as a model to uncover the mechanisms of human disease. The genetic skin diseases we will review are pigmentary mosaicism, piebaldism, albinism, Griscelli syndrome, ectodermal dysplasias, Waardenburg syndrome, and mucinosis in both humans and domesticated animals. ... Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dog demonstrates axial depigmentation. (Right)

RETURN TO TOP

plants -- toxic, poisonous:

The 10 most toxic plants. Eric Dunayer. Clinician's Brief. March 2005;11-14. Quote: The plants discussed in this article [lilies, castor bean, cycad palms (such as sago), yews, autumn crocuses, foxglove, lily of the valley, oleander, and yesterday, today, and tomorrow] are considered to be among the most toxic for dogs and cats; serious illness and death can result from consumption of relatively small amounts. These plants are commonly found in the home or yard. Identification of a plant may be difficult. Plants have common names that may differ between various regions of the country. In some cases, plants of different species may share common names, making determination of a genus or species important for proper identification. If necessary, nursery personnel or a florist can be consulted to help identify the plant. General Treatment Considerations: All cases of toxic plant ingestion are best treated by early, aggressive decontamination. Attempts at emesis should be made in asymptomatic patients, followed by administration of activated charcoal. Charcoal administration can be repeated every 4 to 6 hours while plant matter remains in the gastrointestinal tract. An enema given about 6 to 12 hours after ingestion may further clear plant matter from the gastrointestinal tract. Other treatments are aimed at controlling such signs as vomiting, diarrhea, and arrhythmias.

Cycad Palm Toxicosis in 14 Dogs from Texas. Carolyn Clarke, Derek Burney. JAAHA. May 2017;53(3):1-8. Quote: The goal of this study is to report clinical information, diagnostic findings, and treatment modalities; assess variables that may help distinguish survivors from nonsurvivors; and review the outcome of cycad palm toxicosis in dogs. Fourteen client-owned dogs [including two cavalier King Charles spaniels] with confirmed cycad palm ingestion were identified by reviewing the medical record database at Gulf Coast Veterinary Specialists. Information on signalment, time of ingestion to presentation, clinical signs, physical examination findings, initial and peak/nadir laboratory abnormalities, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, treatment modalities, liver histopathology, and clinical outcome was retrieved. Of the 14 dogs, nine (64%) died as a direct result of cycad palm intoxication, and three survivors had persistently elevated liver enzymes, signifying residual liver damage. Despite decontamination, patients continued to display evidence of illness, indicating rapid absorption of toxins. When evaluating initial and peak/nadir laboratory values, nadir serum albumin levels and nadir platelet counts were significantly lower in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (1.25 g/dL [0.4–2.1 g/dL] versus 2.6 g/dL [1.7–3.4 g/dL] and 21 × 103 [0–64 × 103] versus 62 × 103 [6–144 × 103], respectively). In this cohort of dogs, the case fatality rate was higher than previously reported. Nadir serum albumin levels and nadir platelet counts may help distinguish potential survivors from nonsurvivors.

RETURN TO TOP

porencephaly:

Porencephaly in dogs and cats: relationships between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and hippocampal atrophy. CKCS porencephaly lesion at arrowAi Hori, Kiwamu Hanazono, Kenjirou Miyoshi, Tetsuya Nakade. J. Vet. Med. Sci. July 2015;77(7):889–892. Quote: "Porencephaly is the congenital cerebral defect and a rare malformation and described few MRI reports in veterinary medicine. MRI features of porencephaly are recognized the coexistence with the unilateral/bilateral hippocampal atrophy, caused by the seizure symptoms in human medicine. ... [T]he purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical signs and MRI features of porencephaly in dogs and cats, and to discuss the associated MRI with hippocampal atrophy. ... We studied 2 dogs [including one cavalier King Charles spaniel -- 9 month old female] and 1 cat with congenital porencephaly to characterize the clinical signs and MRI, and to discuss the associated MRI with hippocampal atrophy. The main clinical sign was the seizure symptoms, and all had hippocampal atrophy at the lesion side or the larger defect side. ... [CKCS] seizure symptoms: Secondary generalized seizures; neurological findings: Chewing, excitement, fly-biting. ... [CKCS] had abnormal behavior, such as chewing and excitement, before generalized seizures, and the dog showed 'fly-biting' after the seizures for 5–6 min. [At right, see MRI scan of CKCS' lesion at arrow.] ... All cases had the less hippocampal volume or hippocampal loss at the lesion side or the larger defect side. Furthermore, the severity of seizure symptoms was attributed to cyst ratio and asymmetric ratio. ... [B]oth cyst ratio and asymmetric ratio had correlation with the seizure symptoms in this study. ... In conclusion, it is suggest that porencephaly coexists with the hippocampal atrophy as well as humans. We should evaluate carefully the hippocampal volume and asymmetry in MRI, because the atrophy may have relationships with porencephaly-related seizures."

RETURN TO TOP

portosystemic (liver) shunt:

Distribution of extrahepatic congenital portosystemic shunt morphology in predisposed dog breeds. Lindsay Van den Bossche, Frank G van Steenbeek, Robert P Favier, Anne Kummeling, Peter AJ Leegwater, Jan Rothuizen. BMC Vet. Research. July 2012;8:112. Quote: "Background: An inherited basis for congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS) has been demonstrated in several small dog breeds. If in general both portocaval and porto-azygous shunts occur in breeds predisposed to portosystemic shunts then this could indicate a common genetic background. This study was performed to determine the distribution of extrahepatic portocaval and porto-azygous shunts in purebred dog populations. Results: Data of 135 client owned dogs diagnosed with EHPSS at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University from 2001 – 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The correlation between shunt localization, sex, age, dog size and breed were studied. The study group consisted of 54 males and 81 females from 24 breeds. ... Additional breeds diagnosed with EHPSS were the Lhasa Apso, Miniature Poodle, Norfolk terrier with two cases, and single cases of a Basset Hound, Bolognese, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Epagneul Nain Papillon, Flat Coated Retriever, Fox terrier, Giant Spitz, Great Dane, Miniature Pinscher, Norwich terrier and Welsh terrier. ... Twenty-five percent of dogs had porto-azygous shunts and 75% had portocaval shunts. Of the dogs with porto-azygous shunts only 27% was male (P = 0.006). No significant sex difference was detected in dogs with a portocaval shunt. Both phenotypes were present in almost all breeds represented with more than six cases. Small dogs are mostly diagnosed with portocaval shunts (79%) whereas both types are detected. The age at diagnosis in dogs with porto-azygous shunts was significantly higher than that of dogs with portocaval shunts (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The remarkable similarity of phenotypic variation in many dog breeds may indicate common underlying genes responsible for EHPSS across breeds. The subtype of EHPSS could be determined by a minor genetic component or modulating factors during embryonic development."

Lipopolysaccharide and toll-like receptor 4 in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts. M.S. Tivers, V.J. Lipscomb, K.C. Smith, C.P.D. Wheeler-Jones, A.K. House. Vet. J. December 2015;404-2015;206(3):303-413. Quote: "Surgical attenuation of a congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) results in increased portal vein perfusion, liver growth and clinical improvement. Portal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in liver regeneration via toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mediated cytokine activation. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with LPS in dogs with CPSS. Plasma LPS concentrations were measured in the peripheral and portal blood using a limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. ... We included paired peripheral and portal plasma samples from 13 CPSS dogs of the following breeds: Bichon Frise (n = 2), Labrador (n = 2), Border terrier (n = 1), Cavalier King Charles spaniel (n = 1), crossbreed (n = 1), Dogue de Bordeaux (n = 1), German shepherd dog (n = 1), Miniature Schnauzer (n = 1), Springer spaniel (n = 1), West Highland White terrier (n = 1), Yorkshire terrier (n = 1). The median age was 295 days (range, 125–1835 days). Nine dogs (69.2%) had an extrahepatic CPSS and four (30.8%) had an intrahepatic CPSS. ... LPS concentration was significantly greater in the portal blood compared to peripheral blood in dogs with CPSS (P = 0.046) and control dogs (P = 0.002). LPS concentrations in the peripheral (P = 0.012) and portal (P = 0.005) blood of dogs with CPSS were significantly greater than those of control dogs. The relative mRNA expression of cytokines and TLRs was measured in liver biopsies from dogs with CPSS using quantitative PCR. TLR4 expression significantly increased following partial CPSS attenuation (P = 0.020). TLR4 expression was significantly greater in dogs that tolerated complete CPSS attenuation (P = 0.011) and those with good portal blood flow on pre-attenuation (P = 0.004) and post-attenuation (P = 0.015) portovenography. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 concentration was measured using a canine specific ELISA and significantly increased 24 h following CPSS attenuation (P < 0.001). Portal LPS was increased in dogs with CPSS, consistent with decreased hepatic clearance. TLR4 mRNA expression was significantly associated with portal blood flow and increased following surgery. These findings support the concept that portal LPS delivery is important in the hepatic response to surgical attenuation. Serum IL-6 significantly increased following surgery, consistent with LPS stimulation via TLR4, although this increase might be non-specific."

Morphology of splenocaval congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats. R. N. White, A. T. Parry. J.S.A.P. January 2016;57(1):28-32. Quote: "Objective: To describe the anatomy of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the splenic vein communicating with the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of a consecutive series of dogs and cats managed for congenital portosystemic shunts. Results: Ninety-eight dogs and eight cats met the inclusion criteria of a congenital portosystemic shunt involving the splenic vein communicating with the prehepatic caudal vena cava plus recorded intra-operative mesenteric portovenography or computed tomography angiography and gross observations at surgery. All cases (both dogs and cats) had a highly consistent shunt that involved a distended gastrosplenic vein that communicated with the caudal vena cava at the level of the epiploic foramen via an anomalous left gastric vein. Clinical Significance: The morphology of the shunt type described appeared to be a result of an abnormal communication between the left gastric vein and the caudal vena cava and the subsequent development of preferential blood flow through an essentially normal portal venous system. The abnormal communication (shunt) was through the left gastric vein and not the splenic vein, as might have been expected. This information may help with surgical planning in cases undergoing shunt closure surgery."

RETURN TO TOP

pregnancy:

Changes in serum progesterone concentrations in Bernese mountain dogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels during pregnancy. K. Thejll Kirchhoff, S. Goericke-Pesch. Theriogenology. June 2016. Quote: Progesterone (P4) concentrations during canine pregnancy follow a specific pattern. Although the general pattern is similar, it is likely that breed-specific differences exist. Detailed knowledge about the physiological range of P4 concentrations may be helpful in cases of suspected hypoluteoidism. The aim of this study was to investigate P4 changes during pregnancy in a small and a large breed, to obtain reference values for specific intervals during pregnancy and to test for breed- or body weight–specific differences. We studied P4 concentrations in pregnancies from healthy Bernese mountain dogs (BMDs, n = 6) and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs, n = 6) with a normal reproductive history. Blood samples for P4 were taken to determine the day of ovulation and after confirmation of pregnancy in regular intervals from Days 23 to 29 to Days 60 to 64. Bernese mountain dogs delivered 6.2 ± 2.6 puppies (range: 3–9) 63.4 ± 1.5 (range: 61–65) days after ovulation (excluding data from one BMD with elective c-section) and CKCS delivered 3.3 ± 1.9 puppies (range: 1–5) 63.5 ± 1.1 (range: 62–65) days after ovulation. In general, the P4 concentrations of individual dogs continuously decreased from the first to the last sampling during pregnancy. Respective mean concentrations were Days 23 to 29: 19.2 ± 4.3/22.2 ± 3.9 ng/mL (BMD/CKCS), Days 30 to 34: 15.6 ± 2.3/17.7 ± 5.8 ng/mL, Days 35 to 39: 12.5 ± 2.8/14.1 ± 3.4 ng/mL, Days 40 to 44: 8.9 ± 1.4/11.8 ± 3.7 ng/mL, Days 45 to 49: 7.7 ± 1.6/8.9 ± 1.9 ng/mL, Days 50 to 54: 6.0 ± 1.3/8.7 ± 7.1 ng/mL, Days 55 to 59: 4.7 ± 1.2/5.3 ± 2.8 ng/mL, and Days 60 to 64: 3.69 ± 1.86/2.62 ± 0.42 ng/mL. ANOVA indicated significant differences over time within each breed when considered individually (P < 0.0001 each), but not between breeds although mean P4 was slightly lower in BMD until Days 55 to 59. The present data clearly confirm the previously described P4 pattern during canine pregnancy with highest P4 concentrations obtained in the first interval (Days 23–29) and a subsequent decrease of P4. The lack of a significant rapid prepartal P4 drop might be related to methodological issues (time of last collection in regards to parturition). Other than expected, we failed to proof significant differences in P4 between CKCS and BMD. Further studies are required to confirm the results on a larger population of both breeds, but also other large-sized breeds to test for the hypothesis if BMD might have lower P4 concentrations and smaller litter size compared to other large breeds with larger litter size.

Short gestation length in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. K. S. Baltutis, T. M. Beachler, S. K. Lyle, C. S. Bailey. Therio 2016 annual conference. July 2016. Quote: Background: Anecdotal evidence from breeders suggests that Cavaliers regularly whelp earlier than their due date. The purpose of this case series was to evaluate whether the gestation length of Cavaliers is shorter than the average canine gestation length. Methods: 17 client-owned CKCS and 17 client-owned bitches of various breeds as control group. Gestation length evaluated on timing of LH [luteinizing hormone] surge. LH surge estimated as the date on which progesterone measured between 2.0 and 3.0 ng/ml. All bitches went into labor naturally. Results: CKCS Gestation Length: 62.8 ± 2.0 days. Range: 60 to 66 days. Non-CKCS: Gestation Length: 64.5 ± 1.4 days. Range: 62 to 68 days. Gestation length of CKCS is statistically shorter than gestation length of control group (p<0.05). Conclusions: Gestation length of Cavalier King Charles bitches was 3.2% shorter than the reported canine gestation length (65 days from the LH surge). Gestation length of control group was not significantly shorter than reported canine gestation length. Difference between CKCS group and control group was statistically significant (p<0.05). Clinical implications of this research for pregnancy management of CKCS bitches include: • Recommendations for scheduling a timed Caesarean section. • Approaches to managing late-term complications.

Reproductive performance and pre-weaning mortality: Preliminary analysis of 27,221 purebred female dogs and 204,537 puppies in France. Sylvie Chastant-Maillard, C Guillemot, A Feugier, C Mariani, A Grellet, H Mila. Reprod. in Domestic Anim. October 2016;51(Suppl. 3):1-5. Quote: The objective of this study was to describe efficiency of reproduction of purebred dogs in field breeding conditions, from mating to weaning in France. Data were collected between 2010 and 2014 in 5,667 French breeding kennels. ... Data on 45,913 heats (all with mating), from 27,221 bitches from 248 breeds, were analysed. Fifty-six per cent of the heats were from mini breeds, 17.4% from medium, 20.5% from maxi and 6.1% from giant. The most represented breeds were Chihuahua (7.8% of the heats, 2,132 bitches), Yorkshire Terrier (6.2%; 1,698), Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (6.1%; 1,668) and 10 breeds had more than 1,000 heats included. ... Effect of breed size (Mini: adult body weight <10 kg; Medium: 10–25 kg; Maxi: 25–40 kg; Giant: >40 kg), age of dam and male on pregnancy rate, abortion rate and litter size were evaluated by multivariable models. Data on 45,913 heats (all with mating), from 27,221 bitches from 248 breeds, were analysed. At mating, mean age (±SD) was 3.1 ± 1.8 years for bitches and 3.3 ± 2.0 for males. Males originated from the same kennel as the females in 88.5% of the matings. Based on breeder’s evaluation of the pregnancy status, pregnancy rate (number of pregnant females based on breeders declaration/number of heats) Table 2was 87.8% and abortion rate was 6.8%. Finally, 81.9% of the mated females gave birth to a litter. On 37,946 litters (204,537 puppies), mean litter size was 5.4 ± 2.8 puppies (range 1–24), which was influenced by breed size and dam age (p < .0001). Stillbirth rate was 7.4% and puppy mortality rate (stillbirth + mortality until 2 months of age) was 13.4%. Prolificacy and puppy mortality rates were affected by breed size and within a breed size, by breed. Despite probable approximations (as data originate from breeders declaration), this large-scale analysis provides reference values on reproductive performance in dogs.

RETURN TO TOP

protein-losing enteropathy:

Diagnosis and Management of Protein-losing Enteropathies. Stanley L. Marks. WSAVA. 2007. Quote: "Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a syndrome caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases causing the enteric loss of albumin and globulin. Intestinal inflammation, infiltration, ulceration, blood loss, and primary or secondary lymphangiectasia are well documented causes of PLE. If left untreated, the final outcome of PLE is panhypoproteinemia with decreased intravascular oncotic pressure and the development of abdominal and pleural effusion, peripheral oedema, and death. An important sequel to PLE includes thromboembolic disease secondary to the loss of antithrombin. Protein-losing enteropathy is uncommon in cats, and most cats with PLE are diagnosed with intestinal lymphoma or severe IBD."

A Retrospective Study in 21 Shiba Dogs with Chronic Enteropathy. Aki Ohmi, Koichi Ohno, Kazuyuki Uchida, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Yuko Koshino-Goto, Kenjiro Fukushima, Masashi Takahashi, Ko Nakashima, Yasuhito Fujino, Hajime Tsujimoto. . Vet. Med. Sci. January 2011;73(1):1-5. Quote: "We retrospectively studied the clinical and laboratory features and outcomes of chronic enteropathy in Shiba dogs. Among 99 dogs with chronic enteropathy, 21 Shiba dogs (21%) were included in the study (odds ratio, 7.14) [and 3 cavalier King Charles spaniels]. No significant differences were seen in signalment, clinical signs, symptoms or laboratory profiles between the Shiba and non-Shiba groups. Severe histopathological lesions in the duodenum were a common finding in the Shiba group. The median overall duration of survival in the Shiba group was 74 days, while that of the dogs in the non-Shiba group could not be determined because more than half of the cases remained alive at the end of this study. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (P<0.0001). The 6-month and 1-year survival rates for the Shiba group were 46% and 31%, respectively. Conversely, the 6-month, 1-year and 3-year survival rates for the non-Shiba group were 83%, 74% and 67%. The results obtained here demonstrated that the Shiba dog is predisposed to chronic enteropathy and shows severe duodenum lesions and poor outcomes, indicating a breed-specific disease."

Hypercoagulability in Dogs with Protein-Losing Enteropathy. L.V. Goodwin, R. Goggs, D.L. Chan, K. Allenspach. J. Vet. Intern. Med. March 2011:25:273-277. Quote: "Background: Dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) have previously been reported to present with thromboembolism; however, the prevalence and pathogenesis of hypercoagulability in dogs with PLE have not been investigated so far. Hypothesis: Dogs with PLE are hypercoagulable compared with healthy control dogs. Animals: Fifteen dogs with PLE [one was a cavalier King Charles spaniel]. Thirty healthy dogs served as controls (HC). Methods: A prospective study was performed including 15 dogs with PLE. All dogs were scored using the canine chronic enteropathy activity index (CCECAI). Thromboelastography (TEG) and other measures of coagulation were evaluated. Recalcified, unactivated TEG was performed and reaction time (R), kinetic time (K), alpha angle (a), and maximum amplitude (MA) values were recorded. Nine dogs were reassessed after initiation of immunosuppressive treatment. Results: All dogs with PLE in the study were hypercoagulable with decreased R (PLE: median 7.8, range [2.4–11.2]; HC: 14.1 [9.1–20.3]), decreased K (PLE: 2.5 [0.8–5.2]; HC: 8.25 [4.3–13.1]), increased a (PLE: 56.7 [38.5–78.3]; HC: 25.6 [17–42.4]), and increased MA (PLE: 68.2 [54.1–76.7]; HC: 44.1, [33.5–49]) (all P o .001). Median antithrombin (AT) concentration was borderline low in PLE dogs; however, mean serum albumin concentration was severely decreased (mean 1.67 g/dL 5.1, reference range 2.8–3.5 g/dL). Despite a significant improvement in serum albumin and CCECAI, all 9 dogs with PLE were hypercoagulable at re-examination. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: The hypercoagulable state in dogs with PLE cannot be solely attributed to loss of AT. Despite good clinical response to treatment, dogs remained hypercoagulable and could therefore be predisposed to thromboembolic complications."

Prognostic factors in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy. K. Nakashima, S. Hiyoshi, K. Ohno, H. Tsujimoto. Vet. J. May 2015;205(1):1-6. Quote: "Canine protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is associated with severe gastrointestinal disorders and has a guarded to poor prognosis although little information is available regarding factors affecting prognosis. The purpose of this study was to identify the prognostic factors for survival of dogs with PLE. Ninety-two dogs diagnosed with PLE from 2006 to 2011 were included in a retrospective cohort study. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Variables recorded at the time of diagnosis were statistically analysed for possible prognostic factors in a univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. In the multivariate analysis, the predictors for mortality in dogs with PLE were more highly scored in terms of canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI) (P = 0.0003), clonal rearrangement of lymphocyte antigen receptor genes (P = 0.003), and elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (P = 0.03). Using histopathological diagnosis, both small- and large-cell lymphomas were associated with significantly shorter survival times than chronic enteritis (CE) and intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL). Normalization of CIBDAI and plasma albumin concentration within 50 days of initial treatment was associated with a longer survival time. In conclusion, CIBDAI, clonal rearrangement of lymphocyte antigen receptor genes, histopathological diagnosis, and response to initial treatments would be valuable in separating the underlying causes and could be important in predicting prognosis in dogs with PLE."

RETURN TO TOP

pulmonic stenosis:

Pulmonary artery lesions in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. Karlstam E, Häggström J, Kvart C, Jönsson L. Michaelsson, M. Vet. Rec. August 2000;147:166–167. Quote: Abstract Postmortem samples from 7 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (aged 8-9 years) that died or been killed because of problems associated with chronic valvular disease (CVD) were examined. The findings included mitral CVD and dilation of the left atrium and ventricle in all dogs, and left atrial rupture in two and severe pulmonary artery thrombosis in one. all dogs also showed wrinkling and irregularity of the endothelial surface of the main pulmonary artery and its branches. The pulmonary artery wall showed sever intimal thickening due to subendothelial fibrosis and abundant vacuolated, Alcian blue-PAS-positive intercellular substances compatible with glycosaminoglycans (GAGS). GAGS were also found in the tunica media. In more sever cases the internal elastic lamina, separating the tunica intima from the tunica media was fragmented and poorly discernible. It is suggested that CVD is part of a more generalised connective tissue diseases. ... In cavalier King Charles spaniels, intimal thickening and breaks in the internal elastic lamina of the femoral artery have been reported (Buchanan and others 1997), and these lesions were associated with thrombosis and vascular occlusion. ... The cases presented here were seven consecutive, nonselected spaniels that underwent postmortem examination over a comparably short period of time. The observations reported indicate that pulmonary vascular lesions are common in middle-aged to old cavalier King Charles spaniels. However, the study does not allow a conclusion as to the true prevalence.

Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonic stenosis. Emily Dutton. Vet. Times. June 2015;22-24. Quote: "This article will review the importance of early detection of heart murmurs, including the diagnosis and management of one of the most common congenital cardiac defects – pulmonic stenosis. Early recognition of congenital heart disease is important to achieve appropriate medical or surgical management, improve outcome and provide an accurate prognosis. The four most common congenital cardiac defects reported in prevalence studies are pulmonic stenosis; patent ductus arteriosus; sub-aortic stenosis; and ventricular septal defects. When severe, these can all result in clinical signs and premature death. However, not every dog with one of these conditions will develop clinical signs or die prematurely. For example, cardiologists grade pulmonic stenosis into one of three categories – mild, moderate or severe. We know dogs with moderate pulmonic stenosis may not have a discernibly worse prognosis than those with mild disease. Pulmonic stenosis: Maldevelopment of the distal bulbus cordis may lead to pulmonary valve stenosis. Breeds at increased risk for pulmonic stenosis include English bulldog, boxer, beagle, Samoyed, French bulldog, West Highland white terrier, Labrador retriever, cavalier King Charles spaniel and bullmastiff. Pulmonic stenosis can be classified as sub-valvular, valvular or supra-valvular according to the location of the lesion. Valvular stenosis is the most common form. There are two main types – A and B. Type A is typified by fusion of the peripheral edges of the semilunar valves (commissural fusion) and poststenotic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk. Type B may involve hypoplasia of the pulmonary annulus and pulmonary trunk, with the cusps appearing thickened and immobile6. Type A is more prevalent. The two forms are not mutually exclusive."

Outcome of valvuloplasty in three dogs with pulmonic stenosis. Chollada Buranakarl, Anusak Kijtawornrat, Wasan Udayachalerm, Sirilak Disatian Surachetpong, Saikaew Sutayatram, Pasakorn Briksawan, Sumit Durongphongtorn, Rampaipat Tungjitpeanpong, Nardtiwa Chaivoravitsakul. 9th Vet. Practitioners Assn. of Thailand (VPAT)  Regional Vet. Cong. July 2016. Quote: Valvuloplasty is the interventional technique for correction of pulmonic stenosis (PS), one of the most common congenital heart disease in dogs. The procedure was less invasive and the results are commonly satisfied. However, the success may depend on many factors such as the severity of stenosis, type of PS, the presence of aberrant coronary artery and other concurrent cardiac diseases. The procedure includes insertion of special catheter with balloon at the tip and advanced into the area of stenosis. The balloon is inflated under fluoroscopy to the disappearance of the waist of stenotic area. We report the first 3 cases of PS. All dogs had stenosis at valvular area. However, the second dog [a cavalier King Charles spaniel] had additional subvalvular stenosis while the third dog also had ventricular septal defect (VSD). (See also a more extensive report on this CKCS, below.)

Special surgical procedure by UF vets saved Rumple's life. Gainesville Sun. July 2016.

Balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonic stenosis in two dogs: case report. Chollada Buranakarl, Anusak Kijtawornrat, Wasan Udayachalerm, Sirilak Disatian Surachetpong, Saikaew Sutayatram, Pasakorn Briksawan, Sumit Durongpongtorn, Rampaipat Tungjitpeanpong, Nardtiwa Chaivoravitsakul. Thai J. Vet. Med. December 2016;46(4):713-721. Quote: Balloon valvuloplasty for correction of congenital pulmonic stenosis (PS) in two dogs by intervention technique was first reported in Thailand. ... In the present study, dog no.1 was Chihuahua and dog no.2 was Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. Chihuahua is one of the most popular breeds of pet dogs in Thailand, whereas Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is uncommon. ... Both dogs did not show any clinical signs related to congestive heart failure. Physical examination in both dogs revealed heart murmur. Electrocardiographs of both dogs were recorded and showed normal sinus rhythm with deep S wave. In the first dog, thoracic radiograph revealed cardiomegaly with enlargement of the main pulmonary artery and left deviation of the apex due to right ventricular enlargement. Definitive diagnosis of PS was performed by echocardiography. Computed tomography (CT) of both dogs demonstrated stenosis of the pulmonic valve with immediate post-stenotic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk. ... In the current report, both dogs were type A with severe PS (systolic pressure gradient > 80 mmHg). These dogs had no concurrence of cardiac disease. By performing CT, no aberrant coronary artery was observed. Thus, cardiac intervention with BV was highly recommended. ... Both left and right coronary arteries originated from their aortic sinuses. In addition, in dog no.2 (Case 2: A 15-month-old Cavalier King Charles Spaniel weighing 6 kg was referred from another veterinary hospital for echocardiography. Neither history of syncope nor exercise intolerance was found. Physical examination revealed that the dog was bright and alert. Heart rate and respiratory rate were 120 beats/min and 32 breath/min, respectively. Systolic murmur grade V/VI was presented along with precordial thrill from chest palpitation.) the CT scan showed slight narrowing of the subvalvular area, corresponding to that seen during echocardiography. Both dogs received PS correction by balloon valvuloplasty under fluoroscopic guidance at the Small Animal Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University. The procedures were successful as suggested by reduced pressure gradient without major complications. Seven days after the operation the pressure gradient reduced as assessed by echocardiography and both dogs remained healthy. ... In conclusion, this study is the first to report the procedure for BV performed in Thailand in two dogs with type A pulmonic stenosis, of which one dog had additional subvalvular stenosis. During the follow-up there were improvements in clinical signs in both dogs associated with enhanced pulmonary outflow due to the reduction in right ventricular afterload. (See a briefer report on the same CKCS, above.)

RETURN TO TOP

shadow chasing:

A Cavalier King Charles dog with shadow chasing: Clinical recovery and normalization of the dopamine transporter binding after clomipramine treatment. Simon Vermeire, Kurt Audenaert, Andre Dobbeleir, Eva Vandermeulen, Tim Waelbers, Kathelijne Peremans. J.Vet.Behavior: Clinical Applications & Research. Nov. 2010;5(6):345-349. Quote: A 30-month-old female Cavalier King Charles dog was presented with a history of worsening compulsive behavior (shadow chasing). In vivo brain imaging using single-photon emission computed tomography and the dopamine transporter (DAT)-specific radiopharmaceutical 123I-FP-CIT revealed a significantly higher DAT striatal-to-brain ratio. Treatment was started with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine 2.5 mg/kg PO, q. 12 hours. After 2 months of medication that resulted in clinical improvement, the DAT binding regained normal values. ... In our case, clinical improvement was already noticeable after 7 days of medication. ... After 2 months of treatment, a post-therapeutic DAT scan was performed. The new DAT ratios were 10.82 and 12.49 for left and right striatum, respectively, both ratios located closely to or in the normal range. To minimize the gluttony, an attempt was made to reduce the dose of clomipramine without renewal of shadow chasing. A dose of 2.5 mg PO, q. 24 hours was daily alternated with a dose of 2.5 mg PO, q. 12 hours, with success. However, not giving the medication dose resulted in relapse of shadow chasing already after 2 days.

RETURN TO TOP

temporomandibular joint morphology:

The effect of obliquity on the radiographic appearance of the temporomandibular joint in dogs. Alison M. Dickie, Martin Sullivan. Vet. Radiology & Ultrasound. May 2001;42(3):205-217. Quote: The temporomandibular joint is formed between the condyloid process of the mandible and the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone. The basic anatomy of this joint was assessed and described in a series of skulls including dolichocephalic, mesaticephalic and brachycephalic breeds. The facial index and rotational angles were measured with the facial index providing a useful method of classifying skull types but the rotational angle being of limited use in assessment of the temporomandibular joint until normal breed values are established. ... Breed size within the brachycephalic group appeared to influence facial index with large brachycephalic breeds (boxer and mastiff) producing lower facial indices (159 to 190, mean 172) and small breeds (cavalier king Charles spaniel, Pekingese, Chihuahua) producing larger indices (2 15 to 480, mean 231). ... The temporomandibular joints of the cavalier king Charles spaniel and Pekingese skulls in the anatomical collection were considered to be grossly abnormal. They were therefore excluded from further consideration in the present study and their rotational angles omitted from Table 2. ... Equipment was designed to allow repeatable positioning of the temporomandibular joint for radiography at a variety of lateral and long axis rotational angles relative to the central x-ray beam. The regions of the joint and anatomic features visualized in each view are demonstrated. 10° rotation was required in either axis to project the joints independently of each other. Lateral rotational angles of 10 to 30° in mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic breeds and 20 to 30° in brachycephalics and long axis rotational views of 10 to 30° depending on the region of interest were considered to be the most useful.

Temporomandibular joint morphology in cavalier king charles spaniels. Alison M. Dickie, Tobias Schwarz, Martin Sullivan. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. May 2002;43:260. Quote: “Temporomandibular joint dysplasia has been reported in several breeds of dog. Three Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) skulls were examined and radiographed during the course of a separate study and all demonstrated changes consistent with bilateral temporomandibular joint dysplasia. Subsequently, skull radiographs from all CKCS dogs examined at the University of Glasgow Veterinary School between 1991 and 2001 were reviewed (n = 26). Only two of these dogs were radiographed specifically for investigation of the temporomandibular joint, although varying degrees of dysplasia were identified in all dogs where the joints were adequately visualized (n = 20). The head of four CKCS cadavers was also radiographed, and similar changes were found. This finding suggests that temporomandibular joint dysplasia is a widespread asymptomatic condition in the CKCS and should be regarded as a normal morphologic variation rather than a pathologic anomaly. Subtle changes are best seen on lateral oblique radiographs, although marked changes are also visible on dorsoventral views. The rotational angle or angle of articulation of each of the dysplastic mandibular condyles was measured and was related to the severity of the dysplastic changes. However, there was overlap between the values calculated for these abnormal joints and normal ones in other breeds, suggesting this measurement was of limited significance and the shape of the components of the temporomandibular joint are more relevant when assessing this joint for the presence of dysplastic changes.”

Morphologic and Morphometric Description of the Temporomandibular Joint in the Domestic Dog Using Computed Tomography. Lenin A. Villamizar-Martinez, Cristian M. Villegas, Marco A. Gioso, Alexander M. Reiter, Geni C. Patricio, Ana C. Pinto. J. Vet. Dentistry. August 2016;33(2):75-82. Quote: The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the domestic dog is a synovial joint with 2 articular surfaces, the mandibular fossa of the squamous portion of the temporal bone and the articular head of the condylar process of the mandible. Although different diagnostic imaging techniques have been used to study the TMJ in dogs, morphologic and morphometric studies based on computed tomography (CT) are scarce. The purpose of the present study was to describe the morphologic and morphometric features of the TMJ in domestic dogs using CT. Width and depth of the mandibular fossa and 2 different angles between the mandibular fossa and the condylar process were measured in 96 TMJs of 48 dogs of different breeds (Labrador retriever, German shepherd, cocker spaniel, boxer, English bulldog, pug, shih tzu, and Cavalier King Charles spaniel [11 CKCSs]). Temporomandibular joint conformation differed between breeds. Mid- and small-sized dogs had mandibular fossae that were more shallow, less developed retroarticular processes, and irregularly shaped condylar processes. The TMJs were more congruent in large dogs, presenting with deeper mandibular fossae, prominent retroarticular processes, and more uniform condylar processes. The measurements proposed in this study demonstrated 3 different morphologic conformations for the TMJ in the dogs of this study. ... The TMJs of Cavalier King Charles spaniels showed remarkably lower values associated with shallow mandibular fossae and incongruent articular heads. ... Cavalier King Charles spaniels had the shallowest mandibular fossae of all breeds. The retroarticular process appeared as a bony extension on the medioventral aspect of the mandibular fossa, articulating with the caudomedial aspect of the condylar process. This bony extension was prominent in Labrador retrievers, German shepherds, boxers, and English bulldogs. The retroarticular process was less developed in cocker spaniels, shih tzus, and pug. In Cavalier King Charles spaniels, it was small or absent. ... The wide angles documented in Labrador retrievers, German shepherds, boxers, and English bulldogs were consistent with long and well-defined retroarticular processes, whereas the narrow angles found in cocker spaniels, shih tzus, Cavalier King Charles spaniels, and a pug were due to less developed or absent retroarticular processes. A dramatically reduced ventral extension of the retroarticular process, as observed in cocker spaniels and Cavaliers King Charles spaniels in this study, may permit slight caudal dislocation of the head of the condylar process and predispose to TMJ instability. ... German shepherds, boxers, and English bulldogswere consistent with deeper (more concave) mandibular fossae and more prominent retroarticular processes, whereas the narrow angles found in cocker spaniels, shih tzus, CavalierKing Charles spaniels, and the pug were due to more shallower (less concave) mandibular fossae and less prominent or absent retroarticular processes. ... The present study agrees with the asymptomatic dysplastic condition of the TMJ previously reported in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel and suggests that this morphological features may exist in certain dog breeds such as cocker spaniels and small breeds such as shih tzus and pugs.

RETURN TO TOP

tonsillitis:

Reagan Dog Has Surgery. UPI. January 1986.  Quote: President Reagan's spaniel Rex successfully underwent a tonsillectomy today, the White House reported. Rex, the year-old King Charles spaniel that replaced another dog, Lucky, in December, checked into a veterinary hospital at an undisclosed location on Monday.

RETURN TO TOP

vasculitis:

Histologic and clinical features of primary and secondary vasculitis: a retrospective study of 42 dogs (2004–2011). James W. Swann, Simon L. Priestnall, Charlotte Dawson, Yu-Mei Chang, Oliver A. Garden. J.Vet. Diagnostic Investigation. June 2015. Quote: "Inflammation of the blood vessel wall has been reported infrequently in dogs, and it may occur without apparent cause (primary vasculitis) or as a pathologic reaction to a range of initiating insults (secondary vasculitis). The aims of our study were to report histologic, clinical, and survival data from a large series of cases with primary and secondary vasculitis, and to compare the clinical parameters and outcome data between groups. Clinical data was collected retrospectively from the medical records of 42 client-owned dogs [Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (6)] with a histologic diagnosis of primary or secondary vasculitis, and follow-up information was obtained. Cases were grouped according to clinical and histologic descriptors, and biochemical, hematologic, and survival data was compared between groups. Several forms of primary vasculitis were observed, and vascular inflammation was observed in conjunction with numerous other diseases. Female dogs were more likely to develop primary vasculitis, and serum globulin concentration was greater in dogs with primary vasculitis compared to those with underlying disease. All dogs with primary vasculitis of the central nervous system died or were euthanized shortly after presentation, but other forms of primary vasculitis could be managed effectively. In conclusion, presentation of clinical cases in this series was variable, and there did not appear to be well-defined vasculitic syndromes as described in people." 

RETURN TO TOP

INSIDE TOPICS